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2013考研必看:考研英语真题长难句解析10

英语网整理 | 2012-07-11
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  1. Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.

  【译文】 事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

  【析句】这是一个主从复合句,主语是it isn't,省略了表语,完整的说法是it isn't a useful, ground-clearing way to start. because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights是一个表示原因的状语从句,其表语an agreed account of human rights跟了一个定语从句which is something the world doesn't have。注意状语从句中的主语it指代上文的the question,it assumes意思是“这种问题(问法)是假定的”。

  【讲词】 account一词的正确理解是翻译的关键。an agreed account of human rights意思是“an agreed understanding of human rights”。

  agreed意为“一致的”。This is the agreed price at which the stock will be traded.(这是股票交易的约定价格。)They met at the agreed time.(他们按约定时间见面。)

  2. Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.

  【译文】 有些哲学家论证说,权利只存在在于社会契约中,是责任与权益相交换的一部分。

  【析句】 Some philosophers argue是句子的主干,宾语是一个从句,介词短语as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements是rights的后置定语。

  【讲词】 social contract意为“社会契约”,也可译为“民约论”或“社会契约论”,指社会成员之间或政府与人民之间确定和限制各自权利和义务的协议。

  duty意为“义务,职责”,与obligation和responsibility同义。obligation通常指特定原因而产生的具体限制,responsibility强调履行义务,duty指出于道德或伦理的考虑而受到的限制。

  entitle的基本意思是“给……题名,给……称号;给予……权利; 使……有资格(做某事)”。

  I think she is entitled to praise.(我看她值得赞扬。)

  The book is entitled Natural Cancer Treatments.(这本书的名称是《癌症自然疗法》。)

  The civil servants in our country are entitled to free medical care.(我们国家的公务员享受免费医疗。)而entitlements意为“权利”。

  3. It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans,or with no consideration at all.

  【译文】这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应这样对待动物:要么像对人类自身一样关切体谅,要么完全冷漠无情。

  【析句】主句是It leads the discussion to extremes,at the outset作时间状语。冒号后面的成分是对主句进一步说明,其宾语是一个that引导的从句,而在这个从句中,either…or…是一个介词短语,作方式状语。

  【讲词】consideration意为“体谅,考虑;需要考虑的事项”。Your proposal is under consideration.(你的提议正在考虑之中。)Face is a big consideration for Chinese.(中国人非常重面子。)He showed no consideration for his wife.(他从不体谅他的妻子。)

  extend意为“延伸;延长;扩大;给予”。The bank has promised to extend your company credit.(银行已经答应向你们公司提供信用贷款。)The wet weather extended into September.(潮湿阴雨的天气延续到九月份。)Please accept our sincere thanks for the courtesy extended to our company.(对我们一行所受到的礼遇,我们由衷表示谢意。)

  4. Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect,extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

  【译文】 这类极端主义者认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

  【析句】 现在分词结构(Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect)作状语,主干结构是extremists of this kind think,宾语是一个从句。

  animals lie outside the area of moral choice直译是“动物是在道德选择的范畴之外”,即“对待动物无须考虑道德问题”。

  【讲词】 respect作名词时除了“尊重”之外,还可表示“方面”,例如:In many respects this is an important decision.(这在许多方面都是一项重要的决定。)In this respect,I would argue that this is the only decision which could have been made.(从这一方面来说,我认为这是唯一可作的决定。)

  5. When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

  【译文】 这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励,而不应遭到嘲弄。

  【析句】 句子分两个部分,以冒号隔开。在前一部分中,主干是it is not a mistake,When that happens作时间状语。在后一部分中,it is mankind’s instinct是主干结构,介词短语for moral reasoning in action作mankind’s instinct的后置定语,an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at是mankind’s instinct的同位语,其中that引导了一个定语从句,修饰an instinct。

  【讲词】 instinct意为“直觉”。We sometimes act on instinct.(我们有时凭直觉行动。)Trust your instincts and do what you think is right.(相信你的直觉,按你自己认为对的去做。)

  reasoning意为“推理”。His close reasoning gave fibre to his argument.(他严密的逻辑使他的论点强劲有力。)SuperKids has created a small collection of classic mind?challenging games that focus on spatial reasoning.(“超级儿童”制作了一小部分经典的智力游戏,考察空间推理能力。)

  6. Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as “steering the economy to a soft landing” or “a touch on the brakes”, makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.

  【译文】 很多用来描述货币政策的词,如“引导经济软着陆”,“触动经济刹车”,听起来像是一门精确的科学。事实远非如此。

  【析句】 在第一个句子中,其主干为Much of the language…,makes it sound like…。used to describe monetary policy是用于修饰language的定语,后面的such as “steering the economy to a soft landing” or “a touch on the brakes”对前面的language作进一步说明。第二个句子是一个简单句。

  【讲词】 soft landing是一个经济术语,意为“软着陆”。

  Nothing could be further from the truth意思是“没有什么比这更远离事实”,即“事实远非如此”或“情况并非如此”。

  monetary与financial同义,意为“货币的;经济的”,但后者更涉及大规模金钱的交易。The monetary system of certain countries used to be based on gold.(某些国家的货币制度过去一直是金本位的。)
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