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  Section Ⅰ Use of English   Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)   All Sumerian cities recognized a number of gods in common, including the sky god, the lord of storms, and the morning and evening star.__1__the Sumerian worshipped the goddess of fertility, love, and war, she was evidently lower__2__status than the male gods, indicating that in a more urbanized society the__3__that the peoples of previous times had paid to the earth mother goddess had__4__. The gods seemed hopelessly violent and __5__, and one‘s life a period of slavery at their easy will. The epic poem The Creation emphasizes that__6__were created to enable the gods to__7__ up working. Each city moreover had its own god, who was considered to__8__ the temple literally and who was in theory the owner of all property within the city.__9__the priests who interpreted the will of the god and controlled the__10__ of the economic produce of the city were favored__11__ their supernatural and material functions __12__. When, after 3,000 B. C., growing warfare among the cities made military leadership__13__, the head of the army who became king assumed a(n)__14__position between the god, whose agent he was, and the priestly class, whom he had both to use and to __15__. Thus king and priests represented the upper class in a hierarchical society.__16__them were the scribes, the secular attendants of the temple, who__17__every aspect of the city’s economic life and who developed a rough judicial system.__18__the temple officials, society was divided among an elite or__19__ group of large landowners and military leaders; a mixed group of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen, free peasants who__20__ the majority of the population; and slaves. 1. [A] Unless [B] As [C] Lest [D] Although 2. [A] on [B] in [C] with [D] about 3. [A] worship [B] reverence [C] admiration [D] gratitude 4. [A] vanished [B] recovered [C] declined [D] attained 5. [A] unpredictable[B] unforgivable[C] unlimited [D] unlikely 6. [A] creatures [B] animals [C] men [D] mortals 7. [A] use [B] turn [C] give [D] back 8. [A] inhabit [B] live [C] reside [D] lodge 9. [A] Hence [B] Thereafter [C] Somehow [D] Incidentally 10. [A] introduction[B] transaction [C] distribution[D] provision 11. [A] as [B] for [C] under [D] of 12. [A] along [B] anyway [C] afterwards [D] alike 13. [A] additional [B] vital [C] singular [D] exceptional 14. [A] alternative [B] secondary [C] intermediate[D] fundamental 15. [A] pacify [B] tempt [C] suppress [D] manipulate 16. [A] Beside [B] Beyond [C] Below [D] Before 17. [A] supervised [B] held [C] managed [D] presided 18. [A] Around [B] Under [C] Above [D] Outside 19. [A] leading [B] noble [C] controlling [D] principal 20. [A] consist [B] compose [C] compile [D] consume   答案   1. D 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7.C 8.A 9. A 10. C 11. B 12. D 13.B 14.C 15. A 16. C 17. A 18. D 19. B 20. B   总体分析   本文介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜及由此引起的社会阶层的划分。第一句至第四句为一个意群,主要介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜,以及神凌驾于人之上。第五句至倒数第二句为一个意群,介绍了由于对神的崇拜而出现的社会上层阶层及其职能。末句附带说明了在宗教体系之外的社会阶层。   试题精解   1.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词。空格处填入的连词出现在句首,说明空格所在分句与下文之间的逻辑关系。选项中,unless表条件,意为“除非”;as作连词,表时间或原因,意为“当……时;因为,由于”;lest表目的,意为“惟恐,以免”,如He emphasized it again and again, lest she should forget.(他反复强调这一点,免得她忘了。)although表让步,意为“虽然,尽管”。根据文意,“苏美尔人崇拜代表繁衍、爱和战争的女神”与“她在地位上却明显低于男性的神”之间存在转折关系,因此选[D]。   2.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。空格所在部分存在一个形容词的比较级,即,lower than…… .空格处的介词和status搭配,表示“在地位方面”。in常用在形容词后,表示“在……方面”,如She was not lacking in courage.(她并不缺乏勇气。)a country rich in minerals(矿藏丰富的国家)。因此[B]in为正确项。   其它选项都可与形容词连用。on表示“影响到”,如He‘s hard on his kids.(他对自己的孩子很严厉。)with表示“关于,对于”,如Be careful with the glasses.(小心这些玻璃杯。)Are you pleased with the result?(你对结果满意吗?)with也可表示“因为,由于”,如His fingers were numb with cold.(他的手指冻僵了。)about表示“关于,对于”,如What’s she so angry about?(她为什么生这么大的气?)   3.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。空格所在部分为分词结构,作状语,即,indicating that…… .其中that引导宾语从句,空格处填入的名词为从句的主语。该名词后又跟有that引导的定语从句:that the peoples…… goddess.将空格处的名词,即that代替的先行词放回定语从句,其完整结构是:the peoples of previous times had paid3 to the earth mother goddess.选项中四个名词为近义词,worship意为“崇拜,敬仰”;reverence意为“尊敬,崇敬”;admiration意为“钦佩,赞赏,羡慕”;gratitude“感谢”。从含义上看,人类对神应该是“崇拜”或“崇敬”,因此[A]和[B]比较恰当。其次,句中的搭配是pay sth. to sb.,表示“付出某事物给某人”。常用于这种搭配的是reverence及其同义词respect,pay reverence/respect to意为“尊敬,向……致敬”。因此本题应选[B]。   4.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。由上一题的分析可知,indicating后是that引导的宾语从句,其主语是the reverence,本题空格处填入的动词是其谓语。由于需要的是一个不及物动词,首先排除[D] attain,它只能作及物动词,必须接宾语,意为“达到,获得”,如attain my purpose(达到我的目的)。其它选项:vanish意为“消失”;recover意为“恢复,复原”;decline意为“减少,下降,衰弱”。由上文可知,苏美尔人崇拜女神,但她的地位低于男性的神。可见,这种崇拜已经减少。因此[C]为正确答案。   5.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格处填入的形容词与violent并列,说明神的特点。unpredictable意为“不可预知的,捉摸不定的”;unforgivable意为“不可原谅的”;unlimited意为“无限的,不受限制的”;unlikely意为“不太可能的”。下文and连接的并列分句是对空格所在分句的解释:人的一生将是任他们摆布的被奴役的一生。导致这种结果的特点应该是“捉摸不定的”,因此[A]为正确项。   补充:one是泛指代词,指“任何一个人”。at will“任意,随意”,如They were able to come and go at will.(他们能够来去自由。)   6.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。上文提到,神使人的一生成为任他们摆布和奴役的一生。空格所在分句则从《创世记》找到证据支持上文中的观点,因此该句的内容仍然是关于神和人的关系。空格处应填入表示“人类”的名词。creature意为“生物”,指人时多带有感情色彩,指具有某种特征的人,如You pathetic creature!(你这可怜的家伙!)animals意为“动物”。men是man的复数形式,意为“男人们”,指人类时应用其单数形式man,如the damage caused by man to the environment(人类给环境带来的破坏)。mortal作形容词时,意为“终将死亡的”;作名词时,意为“凡人,普通人”。因此本题应选[D]mortals. 7.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的动词与副词up搭配构成短语动词。use up意为“用完,耗尽”,如He used up all the money.(他把所有的钱都花光了。)turn up意为“开大(音量、热量等);找到,发现”,如The farmer turned up a human skull while ploughing the field.(那个农民犁地时挖出一个人类的头颅骨。)give up意为“放弃”,常接动名词作宾语,如give up smoking(戒烟)。back up意为“支持,援助”,如The rebels backed up their demands with threats.(反叛者以恐吓手段要挟。)根据上下文意,神奴役人类,人被创造出来后神就不用再劳动。因此[C]正确。   8.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入动词,其宾语是the temple(庙宇),其逻辑主语是who替代的名词god(神)。选项中的四个动词为近义词,都可表示“居住”,但能够作及物动词的只有[A]inhabit,它意为“居住在,栖息于”,如Some of the rare species inhabit the area.(一些罕见物种生活在这个地区。)因此[A]是正确项。   其它项意为“居住”时都只能作不及物动词,如live in a house(住在一所房子里)。This family has resided in this city for 60 years.(这个家族住在本城已有60年了。)I lodged at a friend‘s house.(我寄住在一个朋友家里。)live也可作及物动词,但意为“(以某种方式)生活,过日子”,如She lived a peaceful life.(她过着十分宁静的生活。)   9.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格处填入的副词出现在句首,表示空格所在分句与上文的逻辑关系。Hence表示因果关系,意为“因此,所以”,如My mother is by herself; hence I must go home now.(我母亲一个人在家待着,所以我现在得回家了。)Thereafter表示时间关系,意为“其后,从那时以后”,如You will be accompanied as far as the border; thereafter you must find your own way.(有人送你到边境, 然后你就得自己走了。)Somehow意为“由于某种未知的原因,不知怎么地”,如She looked different somehow.(不知怎么地,她看上去变了。)incidentally意为“顺便提一句;偶然地,附带地”,如The information was only discovered incidentally.(这个信息只是偶然得到的。)空格上一句提到,神是城市里所有财产的拥有者。空格所在分句的主干结构是the priests were favored,the priests后who引导的一个较长的定语从句指出,僧侣诠释神的意志。因此两个分句之间是因果逻辑关系,即,由于神的权力很大,因此诠释神的意志的人受到青睐。[A]为正确项。   10.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。空格处填入名词,和后面的定语of the economic produce of the city一起作controlled的宾语。introduction意为“采用,引进,推行”,如the introduction of new manufacturing methods(新制造方法的采用)。transaction意为“办理,处理”,如the transaction of government business(处理政府事务)。distribution意为“分配,分布;分发,分送”,如the distribution of wealth/food and medicines(财富/食品和药物的分配)。provision意为“提供,供给”,如the provision of health care(提供医疗服务)。由上文可知,神是所有财产的拥有者,而僧侣诠释神的意志,因此僧侣负责产品的“分配”,[C]为正确项。   11.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。空格所在句子的主干结构是the priests were favored,后面紧跟着的介词短语“11 their supernatural and material functions”作状语。用在动词后,as意为“作为,当作”,如Treat me as a friend.(把我当朋友看。)for意为“为了;因为”,如soldiers fight for their country(军人为祖国出征),I couldn‘t speak for laughing.(我笑得说不出话来。)under意为“在……下面;根据,按照;受……影响”,如The wall collapsed under the strain.(墙壁因承受不了重压而坍塌了。)of用在某些动词后,接动作所涉及的人或事,如Think of a number.(想一个数字。)根据句意,应选表原因的介词,即,[B]for. 12.[精解] 本题考查副词用法辨析。空格处填入的词出现在句末,用在两个并列的名词,即,supernatural (functions) and material functions之后。有这种用法的是[D]alike,它作副词时可用在提到的两个人或两种事物之后,意为“两者都,同样地”,如Safety management benefits employers and employees alike.(安全管理对雇主和雇员都同样有利。)其他项都可作副词,但不符合文意。along 意为“向前”,如The policeman told the crowds to move along.(警察叫人群向前走动。)anyway意为“不管怎样”,如The house was locked and I cannot get in anyway.(屋子锁着,我无论如何也进不去。)afterwards意为“以后,后来”,如Let’s go to the theatre first and eat afterwards.(咱们先去看戏,然后再吃吧。)   13.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格所在部分是when引导的时间状语从句,其主干结构是warfare made military leadership__13__,空格处填入的形容词作宾补。additional意为“附加的,另外的”,如additional charges(额外的费用)。vital意为“至关重要的”,如The heart is a vital organ.(心脏是十分重要的器官。)singular意为“单数的;非凡的,显著的”,如landscape of singular beauty(无比优美的风景)。exceptional意为“杰出的,优秀的;异常的,特别的”,如exceptional talent as a musician(非凡的音乐才能),in exceptional circumstances(在特殊情况下)。根据句意,应该是“战争使军事领导才能更显重要”,因此[B]为正确项。   14.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格所在句子的主干是:the head of the army assumed a(n)__14__position between the god and the priestly class.alternative意为“可供替换的”,如Have you got an alternative suggestion?(你有没有其他建议?)secondary意为“次要的,从属的”,如Experience is what matters—age is of secondary importance.(重要的是经验——年龄是次要的。)intermediate意为“(两地、两物、两种状态等)之间的,中间的”,如Liquid crystals are considered to be intermediate between liquid and solid.(液晶被认为介于液态和固态之间。)fundamental意为“基本的,根本的”,如a fundamental difference(根本的区别)。由于下文提到,“居于神和僧侣阶层之间的”,因此空格处应填入[C]。   15.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格所在部分是whom引导的定语从句,修饰先行词the priestly class.将先行词放入从句中,句子的完整形式是:He had the priestly class both to use and to__15__,其中both…… and连接两个并列的不定式作后置定语。可见,空格处填入的动词的逻辑宾语是“僧侣阶层”。pacify意为“使……平静,抚慰”,如pacify the angry crowd(安抚愤怒的群众)。tempt意为“诱惑,鼓动”,如The warm weather tempted us into going for a swim.(暖和的天气诱使我们去游泳。)suppress意为“镇压,压制”,如suppress the rebellion(镇压起义)。manipulate意为“操纵,(暗中)控制”,如She uses her charm to manipulate people.(她利用自身的魅力来摆布别人。)从上文可知,国王和僧侣都是神的代言人,但国王居于僧侣之上,因此他们之间的关系不应是“诱惑”或“镇压”。如果选择manipulate,与use在含义上出现重复,也应排除。[A]pacify为正确项。   16.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。Beside意为“在……旁边”;Beyond意为“在(向)……较远的一边,超出”;Below意为“在……之下;(数量)少于;(级别、重要性)低于”;Before意为“在……之前”。空格上文提到,国王和僧侣代表了上层阶级。空格下文则介绍书吏是庙宇中负责具体事务的侍臣。显然,书吏的地位应在国王和僧侣之下。因此[C]为正确项。   17.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入一动词,其逻辑主语是who替代的先行词the scribes(书吏),逻辑宾语是后面接的名词短语every aspect of the city‘s economic life.supervise意为“监督,管理,指导”,如supervise building work(监理建筑工程);hold意为“拥有,持有;(军事意义上的)控制,守卫”,如The rebels held the radio station.(叛乱者占据了电台。)manage意为“管理,负责(公司、球队、组织等)”,如manage a factory/bank(管理工厂/银行)。preside意为“主持(会议、仪式等)”,如preside at the committee meeting(主持委员会会议)。根据句意,“书吏监督城市经济生活的方方面面”,应选[A]supervised. 18.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。Around意为“在……周围”;Under意为“在……之下,少于,低于”;Above意为“在……上面”;Outside意为“在……外面;不在……范围内,不属于”,如You may do as you wish outside working hours.(不在上班时间,你爱干什么就干什么。)空格上文介绍了庙宇的官员,下文则介绍了与宗教无关的其他社会阶层。可见,空格处的介词应表示“在(庙宇的官员)之外”的含义,因此[D]正确。   19.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格处填入的形容词与elite(上层的,精英的)并列修饰group,指的是下文提到的这样一群人(large landowners and military leaders)的特点。leading意为“最重要的,最成功的”,如the leading role in the TV series(电视连续剧中的主角)。noble意为“品质高尚的;贵族的,高贵的”,如a man of noble birth(出身高贵的人)。controlling一般作动名词,而不作形容词,如The Government is chiefly concerned with controlling inflation.(政府的当务之急是控制通货膨胀。)principal意为“主要的,最重要的”,如the principal reason(主要原因)。由于上下文谈论的是社会阶层,因此应选[B]noble. 20.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入一动词,其逻辑主语是who代替的先行词free peasants,宾语是the majority of the population.从含义上首先排除[C]和[D]。compile意为“编写(书、列表、报告等)”;consume意为“消耗,消费”。[A]和[B]都有“组成”的含义,但consist是不及物动词,要与介词搭配,consist of意为“由……组成”,如The committee consists of ten members.(委员会由十人组成。)compose是及物动词,意为“组成,构成(一个整体)”,如Ten men compose the committee. 因此本题应选[B]compose.   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)hopelessly (ad.) 无望地,无可挽救地;极差地,糟糕透顶地(2)produce(n.)产品;(尤指)农产品,(3)scribe (n.) 书记,抄写员,作者   全文翻译   所有的苏美尔城邦都认可很多共同的神,包括天空之神、风暴之王、晨星和昏星。虽然苏美尔人崇拜代表繁衍、爱和战争的女神,但她在地位上却明显低于男性神。这表明在一个更趋都市化的社会中,过去时代的民族曾经致以大地母亲神的敬意已经减少。神似乎都极其暴力且捉摸不定,人的一生成为任他们摆布和奴役的一生。史诗《创世记》中强调人类被创造出来是为了使神放弃劳动。而且每一座城邦都有它自己的神,该神被认为确实居住在庙宇里,理论上则是城邦里所有财产的拥有者。因此诠释神的意志并且控制城市经济产品的分配的僧侣以他们超自然的以及在物质方面享有的功能而受到青睐。公元前3000年以后,当城市不断增多的战事使军事领导才能变得非常重要时,成为国王的军队首领占据了在神与僧侣阶层之间的位置,他是神的代言人,对僧侣阶层既利用又安抚。因此在一个等级社会中国王和僧侣代表了上层阶级。居于他们之下的是书吏,即,庙宇世俗的侍臣,他监督城市经济生活的方方面面,并制定粗略的司法体系。在庙宇官员之外,社会被划分为四类人:大地主和军事领导人这样一群精英和贵族人群;商人、工匠和技工的混合群体;占人口大部分的自由农民;奴隶。   Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension   Part A Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)   Text 1 It was the biggest scientific grudge match since the space race. The Genome Wars had everything:two groups with appealing leaders ready to fight in a scientific dead heat, pushing the limits of technology and rhetoric as they battled to become the first to read every last one of the 3 billion DNA “letters” in the human body. The scientific importance of the work is unquestionable. The completed DNA sequence is expected to give scientists unprecedented insights into the workings of the human body, revolutionizing medicine and biology. But the race itself, between the government‘s Human Genome Project and Rockville, Md., biotechnology company Celera Genomics, was at least partly symbolic, the public/private conflict played out in a genetic lab. Now the race is over. After years of public attacks and several failed attempts at reconciliation, the two sides are taking a step toward a period of calm. HGP head Francis Collins (and Ari Patrinos of the Department of Energy, an important ally on the government side) and Craig Venter, the founder of Celera, agreed to hold a joint press conference in Washington this Monday to declare that the race was over (sort of), that both sides had won (kind of) and that the hostilities were resolved (for the time being)。   No one is exactly sure how things will be different now. Neither side will be turning off its sequencing machines any time soon—the “finish lines” each has crossed are largely arbitrary points, “first drafts” rather than the definitive version. And while the joint announcement brings the former Genome Warriors closer together than they‘re been in years, insiders say that future agreements are more likely to take the form of coordination, rather than outright collaboration. The conflict blew up, this February when Britain’s Wellcome Trust, an HGP participant, released a confidential letter to Celera outlining the HGP‘s complaints. Venter called the move “a lowlife thing to do.” But by spring, there were the first signs of a thaw. “The attacks and nastiness are bad for science and our investors,” Venter told Newsweek in March, “and fighting back is probably not helpful.” At a cancer meeting earlier this month, Venter and Collins praised each other’s approaches, and expressed hope that all of the scientists involved in sequencing the human genome would be able to share the credit. By late last week, that hope was becoming a reality as details for Monday‘s joint announcement were hammered out. Scientists in both camps welcomed an end to the hostilities. “If this ends the horse race, science wins.” With their difference behind them, or at least set aside, the scientists should now be able to get down to the interesting stuff: figuring how to make use of all that data. 1. The recent Genome Wars were symbolic of _____.[A] the enthusiasm in scientific research[B] the significance of the space race[C] the public versus private conflict[D] the prospect of the completion of DNA sequence 2. The tone of the author in reporting the joint press conference this Monday is _____.[A] astonished [B] enthusiastic [C] disappointed [D] objective 3. It is implied in the third paragraph that _____.[A] the “finish lines” refers to completion of DNA research.[B] former Genome Warriors will never fight again.[C] the former warriors are now collaborators[D] both sides will still work on independently 4. The word “thaw”(Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____ .[A] aggravation of tension[B] improvement in relation[C] intensification in attacks[D] ending of coordination 5. The critical issue facing the scientists is to _____.[A] apply the newly-found knowledge to the benefit of mankind[B] end their horse race for the success of science[C] get down to their genome research[D] set their differences aside   答案   1.C 2.D 3.D 4.B 5.A   总体分析   本文介绍了基因组测序过程中两个科研机构之间的分歧与合作。   第一段:介绍了基因组之战的参战方,斗争的内容及其象征意义。   第二、三段:介绍了现在的和平阶段并对这次的和解发表评论。双方将通过共同召开记者招待会来宣布和解,但这次和解对他们之间的关系不一定会带来实质性的变化。   第四段:回顾了双方由矛盾爆发到走向和解的过程,并指出了他们下一步面临的关键问题。   试题精解   1.最近的基因组之战象征______.[A] 对科学研究的热情[B] 星球大战的重要性[C] 公私矛盾[D] DNA测序结束的前景[精解] 本题考查事实细节。文章首段最后一句话说:政府的人类基因组项目与塞莱拉基因公司之间的竞争至少具有部分的象征意义——公私矛盾在基因实验室上演。[C]项是对该句的改写,是正确项。[A]项是文中没有涉及的问题。文章首句提到了星球大战,是为了说明基因之战的激烈性,与它的象征意义无关,[B]项不能选。[D]项也与“基因组之战”无关。   2.作者在报导本周一的记者招待会时的语气是 _____.[A] 惊讶的 [B] 充满热情的 [C] 失望的 [D] 客观的[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段最后一句是对周一记者招待会的具体报导。作者在正文中是直接引用会议中两方的声明,而为了说明真实情况保持客观性,作者在括号中用了一系列表程度的词加以限制,所以[D]项正确。全文作者只是在客观地介绍一种现象,没有表现出其他项所说的“惊讶”、“热情”或“失望”。   3.第三段暗示_____.[A] “终点线”指DNA研究的结束[B] 以前的基因勇士们将永远不会再对抗了[C] 以前的勇士现在是合作伙伴[D] 双方将仍然继续独立地工作[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段最后一句提到:尽管共同宣言使以前的基因勇士们比几年来都更加亲密,内部人士说未来达成的共识可能更多采取协调的形式,而不是直接的合作。[D]项所述内容是该句的言外之意。   由第三段的第二句话可知 finish line指基因测序工程基本完成,但所得结果只是初稿,还不是最终的确定版本,所以研究还要继续,[A]项错误。该段首句说:没人确定现在情形与以前有何不同。可见,他们以后会不会再起烽烟是不确定的事,所以[B]项错误。[C]项与[D]项相反,由对[D]项的分析,可知[C]项错误。   4.“thaw”这个词最有可能意为 _____.[A] 紧张形势的恶化 [B] 关系改进[C] 攻击更加激烈 [D] 停止协作[精解] 本题考查词义的理解。第四段开始讲到矛盾的爆发。第三句but转折指出,……there were the first signs of a thaw,下文又以塞莱拉公司创始人认为对抗不好的讲话和一次癌症会议上双方的互相称赞为例,对该句话进行论证。可见他们的关系是改善了,所以[B]项正确。单词thaw意为“解冻”,与[B]项一致。其他项均是说不好的方面,与文意不符。   5.科学家们面临的最紧迫的事情是要_____.[A] 把新发现的知识用来为人类服务[B] 为了科学的胜利结束他们之间的竞争[C] 潜心进行他们的基因组研究[D] 将他们的分歧先搁置到一边[精解] 本题考查事实细节。文章最后一句话提到,现在把分歧抛在了背后,或者至少暂时放在了一边,科学家们应该能够开始好好研究这个有趣的问题了:考虑怎样利用那些数据。   [A]项与该句同义,正确。[D]项是已经做到的事情,不能选。现阶段敌对已经结束,基因测序也已完成,所以[B]、[C]项都不再是迫切需要做的事情。   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)grudge(n.)忌恨,妒忌(v.)嫉妒;吝惜,不愿意给或承认~ the tuition money不愿付学费(2)genome(n.)基因组,染色体组(3)dead beat胜负不分的赛跑或竞赛,平局(4)reconciliation(n.)调解,调和;和谐,一致;reconcile(v.)调和,调停;使和解;(to)使接受be ~ed to the loss of his wife接受了丧妻的事实;(with)使符合,使一致~ their words with their actions使他们的言行一致(5)hostility(n.)敌意,敌对,反对;(复数形式)战斗,战争(6)arbitrary(a.)任意的,武断的;独裁的,专断的;arbitrate(v.)作出公断,仲裁(7)thaw(n.)解冻,解冻期(v.)融化,解冻;(态度、感情等)趋于和缓(8)hammer(v.)用锤敲打;锤打,敲打~ at the door敲门;~ out经过仔细研究订出或达成(9)get down to开始处理;认真做~ business 办正经事   全文翻译   基因组之战是太空时代以来科学史上最大的一场积怨引发的斗争。这场战争里什么都有:两组人马各自拥有重量级人物,在科学领域中准备进行一场胜负难料的战斗;他们争取优先解读人体30亿DNA中的每一个“字母”,在这场战斗中,他们把科技和语言技巧用到了极限。该项目的科学重要性是毋庸置疑的。完整的基因排序将有望为科学家研究人体的工作原理提供前所未有的启迪,给医学和生物学带来革命。但这场政府的人类基因组项目和马里兰州洛克维尔市塞莱拉基因组公司之间的竞争本身至少具有部分的象征意义——公私矛盾在基因实验室上演。   现在竞赛结束了。经过几年的公开抨击和多次试图和解的失败,现在双方正走向一个和平时期。人类基因组项目的首领弗朗西丝。柯林斯(和政府方面最重要的一个合作者,能源部的阿里。派翠诺斯)和塞莱拉的创始人奎格。文特同意本周一在华盛顿联合召开一次记者招待会,以宣布:竞争已经结束(从某些方面说),双方都取得了胜利(在某种程度上),而且战争已经消失(暂时地)。   没人完全确定现在情形有何不同。任何一方都不会很快停止其基因图谱研究——双方跨过的“终点线”基本上是武断的,是“初稿”而不是定稿。尽管这次联合宣言使原先的基因组勇士们比几年来任何时候都更关系密切,但内部人士说:未来的一致性将更可能以协调的形式出现,而不是直接的合作。   矛盾爆发于今年2月,当时人类基因组项目的一个参与者英国韦尔科姆基金会公布了一份给塞莱拉的绝密信件,概述了人类基因组项目的抱怨。文特把这一举动称为“低级动物的作为”。但是到了春天,出现了“解冻”的曙光。文特三月份告诉《新闻周刊》说:“这些攻击和污秽的行为对科学和我们的投资者都是不利的,反击也于事无补。”在本月初的一次癌症会议上,文特和柯林斯相互称赞彼此的方法,而且表达了希望所有参与人类基因组测序的科学家都能分享功劳的愿望。到了上周后几天,关于周一发表联合声明的细节经过仔细考虑被敲定后,这一愿望成为了现实。双方的科学家都欢迎对抗的结束。“如果赛马就此结束,科学取得了胜利。”现在把分歧抛在了背后,或者至少暂时放在了一边,科学家们应该能够开始好好研究这个有趣的问题了:考虑怎样利用那些数据。   Text 2   At the start of the year, The Independent on Sunday argued that there were three over-whelming reasons why Iraq should not be invaded: there was no proof that Saddam posed an imminent threat; Iraq would be even more unstable as a result of its liberation; and a conflict would increase the threat posed by terrorists. What we did not know was that Tony Blair had received intelligence and advice that raised the very same points. Last week‘s report from the Intelligence and Security Committee included the revelation that some of the intelligence had warned that a war against Iraq risked an increased threat of terrorism. Why did Mr. Blair not make this evidence available to the public in the way that so much of the alarmist intelligence on Saddam’s weapons was published? Why did he choose to ignore the intelligence and argue instead that the war was necessary, precisely because of the threat posed by international terrorism?   There have been two parliamentary investigations into this war and the Hutton inquiry reopens tomorrow. In their different ways they have been illuminating, but none of them has addressed the main issues relating to the war. The Foreign Affairs Committee had the scope to range widely, but chose to become entangled in the dispute between the Government and the BBC. The Intelligence Committee reached the conclusion that the Government‘s file on Saddam’s weapons was not mixed up, but failed to explain why the intelligence was so hopelessly wrong. The Hutton inquiry is investigating the death of Dr. David Kelly, a personal tragedy of marginal relevance to the war against Iraq. Tony Blair has still to come under close examination about his conduct in the building-up to war. Instead, the Defence Secretary, Geoff Hoon, is being fingered as if he were master-minding the war behind everyone‘s backs from the Ministry of Defence. Mr. Hoon is not a minister who dares to think without consulting Downing Street first. At all times he would have been dancing to Downing Street’s tunes. Mr. Blair would be wrong to assume that he can draw a line under all of this by making Mr. Hoon the fall-guy. It was Mr. Blair who decided to take Britain to war, and a Cabinet of largely skeptical ministers that backed him. It was Mr. Blair who told MPs that unless Saddam was removed, terrorists would pose a greater global threat—even though he had received intelligence that suggested a war would lead to an increase in terrorism. Parliament should be the forum in which the Prime Minister is called more fully to account, but Iain Duncan Smith‘s support for the war has neutered an already inept opposition. In the absence of proper parliamentary scrutiny, it is left to newspapers like this one to keep asking the most important questions until the Prime Minister answers them. 1. We learn from the first two paragraphs that _____.[A] the evidence should have been made available to the Parliament[B] the necessity of war has been exaggerated by the Committee[C] Blair had purposely ignored some of the intelligence he received[D] it was The Independent that first revealed the intelligence 2. The author thinks that the Hutton enquiry is _____.[A] also beside the mark [B] hopelessly wrong[C] illuminating in its way [D] wide in scope 3. By “chose to become entangled” (Line 4,Paragraph 3), the author implies that _____.[A] the dispute between the Government and the BBC was unnecessary[B] the Foreign Affairs Committee had mixed up the argument[C] it was entirely wrong to carry out such investigations[D] the Intelligence Committee shouldn’t mix up with the affair 4. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that _____.[A] most ministers were suspicious of Hoon‘s conduct[B] Hoon will not do anything without consulting Blair[C] Blair should not divert his responsibility to his Cabinet[D] MPs think that it is Blair who drags the country into the war 5. What is the author’s attitude towards the Parliament?   [A] Indignant. [B] Skeptical. [C] Inquisitive. [D] Critical.   答案   1.C 2.A 3.A 4.B 5.D   总体分析   本文通过分析介绍英国政府、议会在对伊拉克作战方面的立场及采取的策略,指出政府应对英国卷入战争负责。   第一、二段:从介绍《独立报》对伊拉克不应该受到侵略的原因的分析入手,指出布莱尔已经获得相关内容的情报,却仍然一味强调战争的必要性。   第三段:介绍有关战争的调查,指出它们都没有涉及到关键问题。   第四段:分析指出布莱尔才是使英国卷入战争的罪魁祸首。   第五段:批评议会没有行使其应有的职责。   试题精解   1. 从文章前两段我们可以知道_____.[A] 本该让议会获得证据[B] 委员会夸大了战争的必要性[C] 布莱尔有意忽略他获得的一些情报[D] 是《独立报》首先公布了这个情报[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第二段末句以问句的形式指出,布莱尔选择了无视情报而只强调战争的必要性。因此[C]正确。[B]将“布莱尔”换成了“委员会”,是错误的。第一段开始指出,《独立报》提出了伊拉克不应该受到侵略的几点重要原因;该段末句则指出,我们不知道的是布莱尔已经收到了提出以上几点的情报或建议。由此可见,早在《独立报》公布这个情报之前已有其它部门对此作了报道。所以,《独立报》不是第一个公布情报的。[D]错误。文章前两段没有涉及“议会”,排除[A]。   2. 作者认为赫顿调查是_____.[A] 不准确的,离题的 [B] 严重错误的[C] 以它自己的方式进行阐述 [D] 涉及范围很广的[精解] 本题考查作者观点。第三段第二句提到,两项议会调查(其中之一是赫顿调查)用不同的方法进行阐述,但却没有一个涉及到关于这场战争的症结所在。由此可见,作者认为这些调查是不准确的。[A]beside the mark与文中none … has addressed the main issues是同义替换。[B]是该段第四句中对“政府关于萨达姆武器问题的档案”的评价。[C]虽然出现了文中类似的表达,但含义出现了偏差。[D]是该段第三句中对“外事委员会”的评价。   3. 第三段第四行中作者提到“chose to become entangled”的含义是______.[A] 政府与英国广播公司之间的纠纷是不必要的[B] 外事委员会使这场争论变得混乱[C] 进行这样的调查是完全错误的[D] 情报委员会不应该搀和到这件事中来[精解] 本题考查推理引申。题干这句话出现在第三段第三句。整个第三段主要围绕“对伊战争的调查”展开论述。该段第二句对两项调查作出评价,指出它们都没有涉及到关系这场战争的症结所在。第三句指出,外事委员会要调查的范围很广,却让自己纠缠于政府和英国广播公司的纠纷之中。由此可见,作者认为“政府与英国广播公司的纠纷”不是关系这场战争的关键性问题,[A]正确。该段中作者没有完全否认“调查”的必要性,排除[C];也没有对调查方(外事委员会或情报委员会)进行批评,排除[B]和[D]。   4. 从第四段可以得知_____.[A] 大多数部长对胡恩的行为表示怀疑[B] 胡恩在没有征求布莱尔的意见之前不会做任何事情[C] 布莱尔不应该将他的责任转交给内阁[D] 国会议员们认为是布莱尔使国家卷入战争的[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第四段第三、四句提到,胡恩先生不是一个胆敢不先与唐宁街协商就独自作决定的部长,无论何时他总是合着唐宁街的拍子跳舞。唐宁街是首相的官邸所在,这里指代“英国首相,英国政府”。因此可知[B]正确。该段倒数第二句提到,持很大怀疑态度的部长们组成的内阁支持着布莱尔,[A]将“布莱尔”换成了“胡恩”。该段倒数第二句也提到作者认为是布莱尔使国家卷入战争,[D]将作者的观点转嫁到国会议员们身上,因此错误。[C]文中未提。   5. 作者对待议会的态度是_____.[A] 愤怒的 [B] 怀疑的 [C] 好奇的 [D] 批评的[精解] 本题考查推理引申。作者对待议会的看法出现文章最后一段。该段第一句指出,议会本应该要求首相布莱尔作出充分解释,但是议会的领导人却对战争表示支持。该段第二句指出,议会缺乏应有的详细审查,因此一些报纸只好不断向首相提出问题。由此可见,作者批判议会没有行使应有的职责,[D]为正确项。   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)imminent(a.)逼近的,即将发生的(2)alarmist(a.)危言耸听的,骇人的(n.)大惊小怪者(3)scope(n.)(to do sth.)(做或实现某事的)机会,能力,如:The money will give us the ~ to improve our facilities.(有了这笔钱,我们就能把设备加以改进了。)   (4)mixed up(a.)糊涂的,迷惑不解的(5)marginal(a.)小的,微不足道的,不重要的;非主体的,边缘的(6)finger(v.)用手指触摸;(sb. for sth.或sb. as sth.)告发,告密(7)behind sb‘s back背着某人,背地里,私下,如:Have you been talking about me behind my back?(你们是不是在背后说我的闲话?)   (8)neuter(a.)(语言)中性的(v.)使失去作用(9)inept(a.)不适当的,无能的,笨拙的(10)beside/off the mark(猜测、陈述等)不准确,相去甚远,离题   全文翻译   年初,《独立报》周日版提出了伊拉克不应该受到侵略的三个压倒一切的理由:一,没有证据证明萨达姆会构成迫在眉睫的威胁;二,伊拉克在“解放”后将变得更加动荡不安;三,冲突将使恐怖主义威胁升级。我们不知道的是托尼。布莱尔已经收到了提出以上几点的情报或建议。   上周从情报和安全委员会收到的报告透露,一些情报人员已经警告说对伊的战争将使恐怖分子的威胁进一步升级。为什么布莱尔没有将这些证据公诸于众,就像他一贯公布那些有关萨达姆武器的耸人听闻的情报一样?为什么他选择了无视情报而只强调战争的必要性正是源于国际恐怖组织的威胁呢?   针对这场战争已有两项议会调查,赫顿调查(注:赫顿是英国终审法院院长)明天将重新开始。它们用不同的方法进行阐述,但却没有一个涉及到关系这场战争的症结所在。外事委员会要调查的范围很广,却选择让自己纠缠于政府和英国广播公司的纠纷之中。情报委员会虽然得出政府关于萨达姆武器问题的档案并非令人迷惑不解的结论,但却没能解释情报为何会如此严重错误。赫顿调查正在调查大卫。凯利博士(英国国防部生化武器专家)的死亡事件,这是一桩与伊拉克战争稍微沾点关系的个人悲剧。   布莱尔仍然得就他的行为是否导致了战争的发生接受严格的调查。相反,国防部长杰夫。胡恩正在被告发,搞得他倒像是国防部里私下操纵战争的主谋一样(事实并非如此)。胡恩先生不是一个胆敢不先与唐宁街协商就独自作决定的部长。无论何时他总是合着唐宁街的拍子跳舞。布莱尔以为通过抓胡恩做替罪羊就可以将所有事情一笔勾销,他是错误的。是布莱尔决定将英国引向战争,而持很大怀疑态度的部长们组成的内阁支持着他。是布莱尔告诉国会议员们(Members of Parliament或MPs),除非萨达姆政权被铲除,否则恐怖主义将对全球造成更大的威胁——尽管他已经得到情报,表明战争将会使恐怖主义升级。   议会应该是首相布莱尔被要求作出更充分的解释的场所,但是伊恩。邓肯。史密斯(英国保守党领袖)对战争的支持使原本已经很无力的反对彻底失去了作用。在议会缺乏应有的详细审查的情况下,像《独立报》这样的报纸只好不断询问最重要的问题直到首相作出回答。   Text 3   Scholastic thinkers held a wide variety of doctrines in both philosophy and theology, the study of religion. What gives unity to the whole Scholastic movement, the academic practice in Europe from the 9th to the 17th centuries, are the common aims, attitudes, and methods generally accepted by all its members. The chief concern of the Scholastics was not to discover new facts but to integrate the knowledge already acquired separately by Greek reasoning and Christian revelation. This concern is one of the most characteristic differences between Scholasticism and modern thought since the Renaissance. The basic aim of the Scholastics determined certain common attitudes, the most important of which was their conviction of the fundamental harmony between reason and revelation. The Scholastics maintained that because the same God was the source of both types of knowledge and truth was one of his chief attributes, he could not contradict himself in these two ways of speaking. Any apparent opposition between revelation and reason could be traced either to an incorrect use of reason or to an inaccurate interpretation of the words of revelation. Because the Scholastics believed that revelation was the direct teaching of God, it possessed for them a higher degree of truth and certainty than did natural reason. In apparent conflicts between religious faith and philosophic reasoning, faith was thus always the supreme arbiter; the theologians decision overruled that of the philosopher. After the early 13th century, Scholastic thought emphasized more the independence of philosophy within its own domain. Nonetheless, throughout the Scholastic period, philosophy was called the servant of theology, not only because the truth of philosophy was subordinated to that of theology, but also because the theologian used philosophy to understand and explain revelation. This attitude of Scholasticism stands in sharp contrast to the so-called double-truth theory of the Spanish-Arab philosopher and physician Averroёs. His theory assumed that truth was accessible to both philosophy and Islamic theology but that only philosophy could attain it perfectly. The so-called truths of theology served, hence, as imperfect imaginative expressions for the common people of the authentic truth accessible only to philosophy. Averroёs maintained that philosophic truth could even contradict, at least verbally, the teachings of Islamic theology. As a result of their belief in the harmony between faith and reason, the Scholastics attempted to determine the precise scope and competence of each of these faculties. Many early Scholastics, such as the Italian ecclesiastic and philosopher St. Anselm, did not clearly distinguish the two and were overconfident that reason could prove certain doctrines of revelation. Later, at the height of the mature period of Scholasticism, the Italian theologian and philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas worked out a balance between reason and revelation. 1. With the Scholastics, the search for new knowledge _____.[A] stopped completely[B] slowed down[C] advanced rapidly[D] awaked gradually 2. Which of the following best illustrates the relation between reason and revelation?   [A] They are simply identical.[B] Revelation guides reason.[C] They are occasionally contradictory.[D] Reason is used to perfect revelation. 3. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 of the text that _____.[A] the position of philosophy as a humble servant was accepted[B] religion had turned into a hamper to the functioning of philosophy[C] philosophers often quoted revelation to support themselves[D] philosophers were sometimes referred to in religious practice 4. Averroёs held that _____.[A] Islamic theology was often subordinate to philosophy[B] religious truth was nothing but imaginative fantasy[C] real truth was inaccessible to many common people[D] imperfect expressions were result of flawed religion 5. Which of the following is most likely to be discussed in the part succeeding this text?   [A] Relations of St. T. Aquinas‘ achievements to previous efforts.[B] How St. T. Aquinas worked out in the balance in discussion.[C] Other endeavors on the relationship of reason and revelation.[D] Outstanding features of the mature period of Scholasticism.   答案   1. A 2.B 3.D 4.C 5.C   总体分析   本文主要论述了哲学和神学或理智和启示之间的关系。文中给出了经院哲学家和神学人员对于二者之间关系的不同看法。考生应着重把握各种院派人士所持的不同观点。   第一段:指出造成经院哲学运动统一性的原因是经院哲学人士共同的目标、态度和方法。他们主要关心的是将理性与启示的知识进行整合。   第二段:主要论述了经院派学者看待理智和启示之间关系的观点。   第三段:论述了与经院派学者的观点成鲜明对比的哲学家阿威罗伊的观点。   第四段:总结指出,因为相信信仰和理智之间的和谐统一关系,经院派哲学家一直试图确定它们各自的范围和能力及二者间确切的关系。   试题精解   1.对于经院哲学家来说,对新知识的追求_____.[A] 完全停滞 [B] 速度趋缓 [C] 进展迅速 [D] 逐渐苏醒[精解] 本题考查事实细节。文章第一段第三句指出了经院哲学家对新知识的态度,即经院哲学家主要关注的不是发现新知识而是把希腊理学和基督教启示分别已经获得的知识整合起来。由此可见,对于经院哲学家来说,对于新知识的追求是停滞不前的。[A]项为正确答案。   2.下述选项中哪一个最能阐明理智和启示之间的关系?   [A] 它们只是简单的相似。   [B] 启示引导理智。   [C] 二者偶尔互相矛盾。   [D] 理智使启示变得完美。   [精解] 本题考查了考生对事实细节的概括能力。文章第二段就理智和启示二者的关系作了详细的论述。该段第一句明确指出,决定经院哲学家持有共同观点最重要的一点是他们确信理智和启示二者间基本的和谐关系。接下来第三句作者提到,二者表面上的对立可以追溯到对理智的错误运用和对启示的误解中,所以[C]项错误。该段后半部分内容中作者对二者的关系进一步展开具体论述:经院哲学家坚信启示能掌握更高层次的真理和确定性;在宗教信仰和哲学推理表面上的冲突中,信仰总是更高层次的裁决者,神学者的决定支配着哲学家的决定。可见[B]项是两者关系的恰当诠释。[A]项和[D]项文中未提及。   3.根据文章的第二段可以推断出_____.[A] 哲学作为谦卑的仆人的地位被接受了[B] 宗教已经成了哲学运行的障碍[C] 哲学家经常引用启示来支持自己[D] 宗教实践中有时也会涉及到哲学家[精解] 本题考查了考生在理解细节的基础上推理引申的能力。文章的第二段主要论述了理智和启示二者之间的关系。该段倒数第二句提到,经院哲学思想在13世纪早期越来越强调哲学的独立性,但在整个经院哲学阶段,哲学一直被称作神学的仆人。可见,哲学的仆人地位并没有被接受。[A]项错误。该段虽然提到神学是最后的仲裁者,乃至哲学被称为神学的奴隶,但并没有确凿的证据说明宗教成了哲学运行的障碍,[B]项属于过度引申。该段的最后一句话提到,神学家用哲学来理解和解释启示,这与[D]项相符,该段只提到神学家利用哲学,而[C]项则未涉及。   4.阿威罗伊认为_____.[A] 伊斯兰神学经常屈从于哲学[B] 宗教真理不过是白日梦[C] 对于多数普通人来说,真正的真理是很难理解的[D] 不完美的表达是宗教的缺陷造成的[精解] 本题考查了文中人物的观点。专有人名Averroёs出现在文章的第三段。该段一开始作者就提到,经院哲学家的态度与哲学家阿威罗伊(Averroёs)所谓的双重真理理论形成了鲜明的对比。接着该段论述了阿威罗伊的理论,即哲学和伊斯兰神学都可以接近真相,但是只有哲学能够完美地得到它。因此,所谓的神学真理对于普通人来讲不过是对事实的不完美的想象的表达。真正的真理只有哲学才可以接近。他还认为,哲学上的真理,至少在口头上,与伊斯兰神学是矛盾的。[C]项是该段第三句的改写。[A]项将原文中的contradict偷换成subordinate to.[B]项属于断章取义,Averroёs 只认为对于普通人来说,神学真理是想象的,但哲学是可以理解它的。[D]论述了文章中没有的因果关系。   5.在下述选项中,那一项最有可能是文章接下来要叙述的?   [A] 圣。托马斯。阿奎纳的成就和先前的努力的关系[B] 圣。托马斯。阿奎纳如何在讨论中掌握平衡[C] 在理智和启示之间的关系上的其他努力[D] 经院哲学成熟时期的突出特点[精解] 本题考查了考生对文章论证结构的把握。文章最后一段首句为段落主旨句,指出:因为相信信仰和理智之间和谐统一的关系,经院派哲学家总是试图确定它们各自精确的范围和能力。该段接下来以时间为线索,先谈到早期经院哲学家不能清楚地对两者进行区分,总是过于自信地认为哲学推理可以为启示提供准则;接着谈到了经院哲学成熟时期的代表人物圣。托马斯。阿奎纳,指出他努力在二者之间找到一种平衡。可见,整个段落的内容都是围绕理智和启示关系上的努力而展开论述。因此可推测下文应继续叙述就此进行的其他努力,因此[C]项为正确答案。圣。托马斯。阿奎纳只是作为经院哲学人物的一个代表被提到,不可能对他的个人成就做过于详尽的论述,排除[A]项。[B]、[D]项都与段落主旨不一致,即不属于论证主旨的论据。   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)scholastic(a.)学校的,学者的,学究的,经院的或经院哲学家的(n.)经院哲学家,学究(2)doctrine(n.)教条,学说,主义(3)revelation(n.)显示,揭露,新发现;启示,揭示;reveal(v.)   (4)arbiter(n.)仲裁者,权威人士,主宰者;arbitrate(v.)公断,仲裁(5)theologian(n.)神学者,空头理论家;theology(n.)神学(6)faculty(n.)才能;全体教员;(大学的)学院,系;(授予的)权力   全文翻译   在宗教研究中,关于哲学和神学,经院派学者们持有广泛的各种各样的学说。在欧洲从9世纪到17世纪的学术实践中,赋予整个经院运动统一性的是其所有成员共同的目标、态度以及共同接受的方法。经院学者首要关注的并不是发现新的事实而是将希腊理性和基督启示各自获得的知识综合成一体。这一关注是经院哲学和自文艺复兴以来的现代思想之间最显著的不同特征之一。   经院派学者的基本目标决定了他们某些共同的观点态度,其中最重要的是他们坚信理性和启示之间存在着基本的和谐。经院学者认为上帝是这两种知识的源泉,真理是他的主要属性,因此他不可能在两种表达方式上自相矛盾。任何关于启示和理性表面上的对抗都可以追根到对理智的错误运用或对启示词语的不精确解释上。因为经院派学者相信启示是上帝的直接教诲,因此比自然的理性具有更高的真理性和确定性。因此在宗教信仰和哲学理性之间的表面冲突中,信仰一直是终极的裁决者,神学家的决断支配着哲学家的决断。13世纪早期之后,经院思想更加强调哲学在自己领域内的独立性。尽管如此,在整个经院哲学阶段,哲学一直被称作神学的仆人,这不仅是因为哲学的真理性居于神学真理性之下,还因为神学家将哲学运用到了对启示的理解和解释之中。   这种经院哲学观点与阿拉伯裔西班牙哲学家阿威罗伊所谓的双重真理理论形成了鲜明的对比。阿威罗伊的理论认为对于哲学和伊斯兰神学来说,真理都是可以接近的,但是只有哲学可以完全获得它。因此,所谓的神学真理作为一种不完美的想象的表达方式为普通人服务,去获得只有哲学才能接近的可靠的真理。阿威罗伊认为哲学真理可以与伊斯兰神学的教诲相矛盾,至少在口头上如此。   因为相信信仰和理性间的和谐关系,经院派学者试图裁决它们各自精确的能力和范围。诸如意大利的传教士和哲学家圣。安瑟莫这样的早期经院哲学家并没有清楚地区分二者,并且过于深信理性能够证明某些启示的教条学说。后来,在经院哲学的成熟阶段,意大利神职人员及哲学家圣。托马斯。阿奎纳在理性和启示之间找到了一种平衡。   Text 4   Despite the general negative findings, it is important to remember that all children who live through a divorce do not behave in the same way. The specific behavior depends on the child‘s individual personality, characteristics, age at the time of divorce, and gender. In terms of personality, when compared to those rated as relaxed and easygoing, children described as temperamental and irritable have more difficulty coping with parental divorce, as indeed they have more difficulty adapting to life change in general. Stress, such as that found in disrupted families, seems to impair the ability of temperamental children to adapt to their surroundings, the greater the amount of stress, the less well they adapt. In contrast, a moderate amount of stress may actually help an easygoing, relaxed child learn to cope with adversity. There is some relationship between age and children’s characteristic reaction to divorce. As the child grows older, the greater is the likelihood of a free expression of a variety of complex feelings, an understanding of those feelings, and a realization that the decision to divorce cannot be attributed to any one simple cause. Self-blame virtually disappears after the age of 6, fear of abandonment diminishes after the age of 8, and the confusion and fear of the young child is replaced in the older child by shame, anger, and self-reflection. Gender of the child is also a factor that predicts the nature of reaction to divorce. The impact of divorce is initially greater on boys than on girls. They are more aggressive, less compliant, have greater difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and exhibit problem behaviors both at home and at school. Furthermore, the adjustment problems of boys are still noticeable even two years after the divorce. Girls‘ adjustment problems are usually internalized rather than acted out, and are often resolved by the second year after the divorce. However, new problems may surface for girls as they enter adolescence and adulthood. How can the relatively greater impact of divorce on boys than on girls be explained? The greater male aggression and noncompliance may reflect the fact that such behaviors are tolerated and even encouraged in males in our culture more than they are in females. Furthermore, boys may have a particular need for a strong male model of self-control, as well as for a strong disciplinarian parent. Finally, boys are more likely to be exposed to their parents’ fights than girls are, and after the breakup, boys are less likely than girls to receive sympathy and support from mothers, teachers, or peers. 1. Temperamental, irritable kids have difficulty adapting to parental divorce because_____.[A] they care too much about the life change[B] the great stress of their families diminishes their ability[C] they tend to lose temper easily and are sensitive to the life change[D] they are faced with more parents‘ fights than the relaxed, easygoing children 2. The following statements are true EXCEPT_____.[A] divorce is usually caused by more than one reason[B] a six-year-old boy may fear being deserted by his parents[C] as the kids grow older, they have a better understanding of divorce[D] a young girl may feel more shameful on parental divorce than an older boy 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the impact of divorce_____.[A] on kids of different sexes will probably change as they grow older[B] may cause most kids’ difficulties in communicating with others[C] on an irritable girl is greater than a noncompliant boy[D] is always greater on boys than on girls 4. According to the author, the reason why parental divorce has greater effect on boys than on girls is that_____.[A] all cultures encourage male aggression and noncompliance[B] boys are always involved in their parents‘ fights[C] males are usually viewed as the models in self-control and strong will[D] boys are basically more self-disciplined than girls 5. What is the main idea of the passage?   [A] Parental divorce has a negative effect on children all through their life.[B] The impact of parental divorce on children varies in personality, age and gender.[C] Boys may become more aggressive than girls in disrupted families.[D] Kids of different ages behave differently on parental divorce.   答案   1. A 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.B   总体分析   本文介绍了父母离异对不同的孩子影响不同。   第一段:先提出造成孩子对父母离异有不同反应的几个因素,接着分析个性在孩子适应父母离异状况时的影响。   第二段:分析父母离异对不同年龄的孩子的影响。   第三段:分析父母离异对不同性别的孩子的影响。   试题精解   1. 喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子很难适应父母的离异,因为_____.[A] 他们对生活的变化太过在意[B] 来自家庭的巨大压力削弱了他们的能力[C] 他们往往很容易发脾气,而且对生活的变化很敏感[D] 与个性温和、容易相处的孩子们比,他们面临父母更多的争吵[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段第三句提到,“喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子与个性温和、容易相处的孩子相比,更难以应对父母的离异,因为他们一般更难以适应生活上的变化”。该句中as引导原因状语从句。因此[A]为正确答案,其中“care too much about”是原文“have more difficulty adapting to”的改写。[B]有较大干扰性,该段第四句进一步分析指出,压力使孩子难以适应生活上的变化,但这种压力可能来自家庭也可能来自其它方面。[C]中前一部分“容易发脾气”不是原因,只能算是不适应环境的表现。[D]本身从文中无法推知,更不是原因。全文末句提到的是“男孩比女孩面临父母更多的争吵”。   2. 下面这些说法都是正确的,除了_____.[A] 离异经常是由不止一个原因造成的[B] 一个六岁的男孩也许会害怕被父母抛弃[C] 当孩子长大后,他们对离异会有更好的理解[D] 一个年幼些的女孩也许比一个年长些的男孩对父母离异更感到羞愧[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第三句提到,年长孩子对父母离异的羞愧、愤怒及自我反省心理取代了年幼孩子的困惑和恐惧心理。由此可见,年长的孩子更容易感到羞愧。[D]与事实相反。为本题的正确选项。该段第二句提到,长大的孩子更能意识到父母离异的决定不能简单归结于任何单一的原因。因此[C]正确,[A]是该句中提到的事实。第三句提到,8岁以后孩子对被抛弃的恐惧才会减少,因此可推出[B]符合事实。   3. 从文章中可以推知,离异_____.[A] (当不同性别的孩子长大时)其影响可能会产生变化[B] 也许会造成大部分孩子交流时的困难[C] 对一个性格急躁的女孩的影响比对一个性格温顺的男孩的影响要大[D] 对男孩的影响总是比女孩大[精解] 本题考查推理引申。全文提到了多个决定父母离异对孩子影响的因素,包括性格、年龄、性别。第一段指出,喜怒无常、性格急躁的孩子更容易受影响。第二段提到,随着年龄的增长,一些影响会消失或新的影响出现。第三段则提到,父母离异最初对男孩的影响较大,而女孩受到的影响较隐蔽,进入青春期或成年期后,新的问题又浮出水面。因此[A]是最全面的论述。文中没有提到“孩子交流”的问题,排除[B]。[C]涉及性别和个性两个因素,因此无法判断谁受到的影响更大;[D]太片面,只考虑了性别因素。   4. 根据作者的观点,父母离异对男孩的影响比女孩大的原因是_____.[A] 所有文化都鼓励男人具有攻击性和不顺从[B] 男孩总是被卷入父母的争吵中[C] 男人总是被看作自律和意志坚强的模范[D] 男孩基本上比女孩更自律[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段中间作者提出了一个问题,怎样解释离婚对男孩影响比女孩大的原因呢?接下来文章从三个方面进行了解释:一,我们的文化更能容忍男孩具有攻击性和不驯服;二,男孩更希望树立起自律的强悍的男人形象,也希望父母严格自律;三,男孩较少受到他人的同情与支持。[C]符合第二点原因,是正确项。[A]错在“所有文化”,文章中是“我们的文化”。[B]错在“卷入(involved in)”,全文最后一句提到的是“男孩更容易看到(be exposed to)父母吵架”。[D]这种说法无从推知。   5. 文章的主旨大意是什么?   [A] 父母离异对孩子一生都有负面影响。   [B] 父母离异对孩子的影响随个性、年龄与性别而不同。   [C] 在破裂的家庭中男孩比女孩可能更具攻击性。   [D] 不同年龄的孩子对待父母离异的行为不同。   [精解] 本题考查文章主旨。文章第一、二句提出了全文的主题,即,经历父母离异的孩子会有不同的行为反应,它们取决于孩子的个性特点、性别及其在父母离婚时的年龄。文章接下来的内容分别围绕这三个因素展开分析和论述。因此[B]是文章主旨。   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)rate(v.)评估,评价,认为,如They ~d him highly as a colleague.(作为同事,他们对他评价甚高。)   (2)surface(v.)浮出水面;(隐藏或被掩盖一段时间后)露面,重新出现,显露,如She ~d again years later in London.(多年后她又出现在伦敦。)   (3)disciplinarian(n.)严格纪律信奉者;严格执行纪律者,如She‘s a very strict ~.(她执行纪律非常严格。)   全文翻译   尽管父母离异对孩子有普遍的负面影响,但经历父母离异的孩子会有不同的行为反应,记住这一点很重要。这些孩子具体的行为取决于他们的个性、特点、性别及其在父母离异时的年龄。在个性方面,那些被认为喜怒无常和性格急躁的孩子与个性温和又容易相处的孩子相比,更难以应对父母的离异,因为他们一般更难以适应生活上的变化。压力,比如在破裂家庭中产生的压力,似乎削弱了这些喜怒无常的孩子们适应环境的能力,压力越大,他们适应环境的能力越弱。相反,适度的压力实际上可以帮助那些个性温和的孩子学习如何应对逆境。   孩子的年龄与他们对父母离异所产生的独特反应有着某种联系。随着孩子年龄的增长,他们更可能自由表达各种各样复杂的感情,更可能理解这些情感,也更能意识到父母离异的决定不能简单归结于任何单一的原因。孩子在6岁后自我责备的心理几乎完全消失,8岁以后对被抛弃的恐惧减少,与此同时,年长孩子对父母离异的羞愧、愤怒及自我反省心理取代了年幼孩子的困惑和恐惧心理。   孩子的性别也是一个可以预测他们对父母离异反应特点的因素。父母离异最初对男孩的影响比女孩要大,因为男孩好斗,不像女孩那样温顺,在人际关系上存在更多的困难,而且在家中或在学校里会表现出不好的行为。不仅如此,男孩在父母离异两年后仍然表现出适应性问题。女孩的适应性问题更为隐蔽,不会外在表现出来,而且经常在父母离异两年内被解决。然而,当女孩进入青,春期或成年期后,新的问题又会浮出水面。怎样解释离婚对男孩影响比女孩大的原因呢?男孩更具攻击性和不驯服可能反应这样一个事实,在我们的文化中这种行为发生在男孩身上更容易得到宽容与鼓励。而且,男孩可能特别希望树立起一个自律的强悍的男人形象,也特别希望父母自身就是纪律的严格执行者。最后,与女孩相比,男孩更容易看到父母吵架,而且,在父母离异后,他们也不大可能像女孩那样受到母亲、老师或者同龄人的同情和支持。   Part B Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the lish A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices that do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)   Until about two million years ago Africa‘s vegetation had always been controlled by the interactions of climate; geology, soil, and groundwater conditions; and the activities of animals. The addition of humans to the latter group, however, has increasingly rendered unreal the concept of a fully developed “natural” vegetation—i.e., one approximating the ideal of a vegetational climax. (41)。 Early attempts at mapping and classifying Africa’s vegetation stressed this relationship: sometimes the names of plant zones were derived directly from climates. In this discussion the idea of zones is retained only in a broad descriptive sense.(42)。 In addition, over time more floral regions of varying shape and size have been recognized. Many schemes have arisen successively, all of which have had to take views on two important aspects: the general scale of treatment to be adopted, and the degree to which human modification is to be comprehended or discounted.(43)。 Quite the opposite assumption is now frequently advanced. An intimate combination of many species—in complex associations and related to localized soils, slopes, and drainage—has been detailed in many studies of the African tropics. In a few square miles there may be a visible succession from swamp with papyrus, the grass of which the ancient Egyptians made paper and from which the word “paper” originated, through swampy grassland and broad-leaved woodland and grass to a patch of forest on richer hillside soil, and finally to juicy fleshy plants on a nearly naked rock summit.(44)。 Correspondingly, classifications have differed greatly in their principles for naming, grouping, and describing formations: some have chosen terms such as forest, woodland, thorn-bush, thicket, and shrub for much of the same broad tracts that others have grouped as wooded savanna (treeless grassy plain) and steppe (grassy plain with few trees)。 This is best seen in the nomenclature, naming of plants, adopted by two of the most comprehensive and authoritative maps of Africa‘s vegetation that have been published: R. W. J. Keay’s Vegetation Map of Africa South of the Tropic of Cancer and its more widely based successor, The Vegetation Map of Africa, compiled by Frank White. In the Keay map the terms “savanna” and “steppe” were adopted as precise definition of formations, based on the herb layer and the coverage of woody vegetation; the White map, however, discarded these two categories as specific classifications. Yet any rapid absence of savanna as in its popular and more general sense is doubtful.(45)。 However, some 100 specific types of vegetation identified on the source map have been compressed into 14 broader classifications.[A] As more has become known of the many thousands of African plant species and their complex ecology, naming, classification, and mapping have also become more particular, stressing what was actually present rather than postulating about climatic potential.[B] In regions of higher rainfall, such as eastern Africa, savanna vegetation is maintained by periodic fires. Consuming dry grass at the end of the rainy season, the fires burn back the forest vegetation, check the invasion of trees and shrubs, and stimulate new grass growth.[C] Once, as with the scientific treatment of African soils, a much greater uniformity was attributed to the vegetation than would have been generally accepted in the same period for treatments of the lands of western Europe or the United States.[D] The vegetational map of Africa and general vegetation groupings used here follow the White map and its extensive annotations.[E] African vegetation zones are closely linked to climatic zones, with the same zones occurring both north and south of the equator in broadly similar patterns. As with climatic zones, differences in the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation constitute the most important influence on the development of vegetation.[F] Nevertheless, in broad terms, climate remains the dominant control over vegetation. Zonal belts of precipitation, reflection latitude and contrasting exposure to the Atlantic and Indian oceans and their currents, give some reality to related belts of vegetation.[G] The span of human occupation in Africa is believed to exceed that of any other continent. All the resultant activities have tended, on balance, to reduce tree cover and increase grassland; but there has been considerable dispute among scholars concerning the natural versus human-caused development of most African grasslands at the regional level.   答案   41.F 42.A 43.C 44.G 45.D   总体分析   本文是一篇介绍非洲植被研究的科普性文章。   第一段:在非洲植被的图形绘制及其分类中很早就重视了植被与气候之间的密切关系。   第二段:随着人们对非洲植物的了解增加,对植物的命名、分类和绘制图形变得更加具体,许多有关植物区域的规划也被提出来。   第三段:现在人们更强调非洲植物的多样性而非一致性。   第四段:学者们对非洲草地发展的原因,对植物群系的命名、归类以及描述的原则都存在分歧。   第五段:介绍现在非洲植被图谱对植物的归类法。   [A] 随着人们对植物了解的增加,对植物的命名、分类和绘制图形也更加具体。   [B] 在高降水量的地区,大草原的植被因周期性的火灾而得以保存。   [C] 非洲东部植被被认为有很大的一致性。   [D] 现在的植物图谱及植物分类都受怀特图谱的影响。   [E] 影响植被发展的几个因素。   [F] 叙述了影响植被的气候因素。   [G] 学者们对于导致非洲草地发展的原因,存在很大的分歧。   试题精解   41.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落内一致性原则+上下文的衔接本题空格出现在第一段中,应起到承上启下的作用。上文提到了影响非洲植被的多种因素,并强调人类活动对植被气候的影响。空格下文提到早期对非洲植被的研究重视植物带与气候的关系。可见,该段主要围绕“气候”与“非洲植被”展开论述。预测空格处的内容应和段落主题保持一致。[E]出现了关键词“climatic”和“vegetation”,但它主要论述的是“气候带”,而非“气候”。[F]出现了关键词“climate”和“vegetation”。其中however一词表明与上文构成转折关系,从“强调人类活动的影响”转向“强调气候的影响”。[F]最后出现的belts of vegetation与空格下文plant zones是同义表达,相互呼应。   42.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接本题空格出现在第二段开始。下文的特征词in addition表明空格部分与下文存在递进关系。下文指出,当人们发现了更多不同的植物区域时,许多规划接连被提出。[A]中“随着人们对植物了解的增加(more has become known of …)”与下文中“人们发现更多形状和大小不一的植物区域(more … have been recognized)”内容很接近,出现了衔接。从[A]提到的“植物命名、分类和绘制图形的具体化”到下文“治理植物区域的规划的提出”也存在着递进关系。   43.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接本题空格出现在第三段开始。下文的第一句话指出,现在,人们常常提出完全相反的假设。由此可知,空格处论述的内容应与下文相反。从第三段末句“在很小的面积里都可能出现多种植被类型”的论述可知,下文应主要论述物种的多样性。与此能够形成对照的是[C],它强调了植被的一致性(uniformity)。   44.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接本题空格出现在第四段开始。下文特征词correspondingly(相应地)表明空格部分与下文存在因果关系。此外,下文中出现了some和others两个代词,指代不明确,需要通过空格处的内容将其具体化。下文首先指出,有关植物群系的命名、归类以及描述原则是大相径庭的。接着以学者对地带的不同命名为例予以说明。因此下文主要论述的是学者在植物研究中存在的分歧。[G]论述的正是这方面的内容,它指出学者们对导致非洲草地发展的原因存在分歧。[G]中的grasslands与下文的savanna和steppe呼应,下文some和others都指的是[G]中的scholars.具有干扰性的是[A],它出现了与下文相同的字眼“naming”、“classification”、“mapping”等,但它论述的是“非洲植物种类”,而且最后出现的是“可能出现的气候”,这些都无法与下文构成很好的衔接。因此[G]为正确项。   45.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+词语的呼应本题空格出现在第五段开始。下文however一词表明空格部分与下文构成转折关系。下文提到,源图中100种植物具体类别被简化为14种涵盖更广的类别。由此可知,空格部分应出现与“图”或“植物类别”有关的内容。符合要求的是[D],其中the White map与第四段提到的Frank White呼应,its extensive annotations与下文100 specific types呼应。   核心词汇或超纲词汇   (1)vegetation(n.)(统称)植物;(尤指某地或环境的)植被,植物群落,草木(2)current(n.)(海洋或江河的)水流,潮流,气流;电流;思潮,潮流(3)mapping(n.)(地图等)图形的绘制(4)discount(v.)认为不重要,不重视,不全信;打折出售(5)localized(a.)在小范围内的,局部的,如a ~ infection局部感染(6)on balance权衡起来,两相比较,如~ I think we should benefit by adopting the scheme.(权衡起来,我们采用这个方案应该会受益。)   (7)formation(n.)组成物,形成物,如massive rock ~s块状岩层(8)nomenclature(n.)(尤指某学科的)命名法   全文翻译   直到大约200万年以前,非洲的植被总是被这些因素所影响:气候的交互作用,地质、土壤和地下水的条件,以及动物的活动。然而,人类活动的出现扩大了动物活动的影响,并不断使充分发展的“自然”植被——即,近似理想的植被气候——的构想变得不现实。但是,广义上说,气候仍然是影响植被的主要因素。区域性的降水带、纬度的反射以及暴露于截然不同的大西洋和印度洋气流之下,使相应的植被带的出现成为可能。[F] 有关非洲植被的图形绘制及其分类的早期努力就十分重视这种相关性:有时植物带的名称直接源于气候。这里讨论的“带”的概念仅限于广义和描述性的含义。   当人们对非洲好几万植物种类以及其复杂的生态了解得更多时,植物的命名、分类和绘制图形也变得更加具体,开始强调实际存在的而不是推测可能出现的气候。[A] 此外,随着时间的推移,人们发现了更多形状和大小不一的植物区域。因此,许多规划一个接一个地被提出,它们都涉及两个重要方面的观点:将要采取的治理手段的一般范围以及人类的影响将要被理解或忽视的程度。   曾经,在对非洲土地的科学治理中,其植被的一致性被认为比同时期如果在西欧或美国进行土地治理所能普遍接受的更大。[C] 现在,人们常常提出完全相反的假设。在许多有关非洲热带地区的研究中,多个物种的密切结合——复杂的相互联系以及与局部的土壤、坡度和排水条件的关系——已经被详细地给予了说明。在几平方英里内,就可以看得见植被的更替性:从长有纸草的沼泽(纸草是古埃及人用来做纸的草,“纸”这个词就来源于它),穿过沼泽草地、阔叶树林和草到在肥沃的山腰土上长着的一片树林,最后到几乎光秃秃的岩石山顶上生长的肉质多汁的植物。   人类在非洲活动的时间被认为比在其它任何洲都要长。总的来说,所有活动的结果都倾向于减少森林覆盖面积和增加草地面积。但是在地区层面上,关于是自然还是人为导致了大多数非洲草地的发展,学者们存在很大的分歧。[G] 相应地,这些学者在他们命名、归类以及描述植物群系的原则上也是大相径庭。对于几乎同样宽广的地带,一些学者将其归类为非洲大草原(没有树木)和西伯利亚大草原(树木稀疏),而另一些学者则选用如森林、林地、荆棘、灌木丛、灌木这样的术语来描述。这种差异性在已出版的两幅有关非洲植被最全面最权威的图谱所采用的植物术语中可见一斑。这两幅图是:R. W. J.凯伊编写的《北回归线以南的非洲植被图》和后来出版的资料来源更为广泛的由富兰克。怀特编辑的《非洲植被图》。以木本植群的覆盖率和草本层为依据,凯伊的图采用“非洲大草原”和“西伯利亚大草原”对植物群系进行精确定义;而在怀特的图中,却并不采用这两种具体的分类方法。然而,普遍而广泛意义上的非洲大草原的迅速缺失却是令人质疑的。   现在使用的非洲植被图谱及普通的植被归类法都沿用怀特的图谱及其广博的注解。[D]但是,源图中确认的100种植物的具体类别被简化为14种涵盖更广的类别。   干扰项[B] 在高降水量地区,比如非洲东部,大草原的植被因周期性的火灾而得以保存。雨季末的大火燃烧了干草,火烧退了森林植被,阻碍了树木和灌木的滋生,并促进了新草的生长。   [E] 非洲植被带与气候带有着紧密的联系,赤道以南和赤道以北出现了结构非常相似的植被带。气候带、降雨量和降雨的季节性分布的差异一起对植被发展构成了最重要的影响。   Part C Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)   Economics, as we know it, is the social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. (46) Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed, history records changes in human objectives, and sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts. Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. (47) The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally. Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations. The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments, (48) Because, according to Keynes, inadequate total demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government. Economic issues have occupied people‘s minds throughout the ages. (49) Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece wrote about problems of wealth, property, and trade, both of whom were prejudiced against commerce, feeling that to live by trade was undesirable. The Romans borrowed their economic ideas from the Greeks and showed the same contempt for trade. (50) During the Middle Ages the economic ideas of the Roman Catholic church were expressed in the law of the church, which condemned the taking of interest for money loaned and regarded commerce as inferior to agriculture. Economics as a subject of modern study, distinguishable from moral philosophy and politics, dates from the work, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), by the Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith. Mercantilism and physiocracy were precursors of the classical economics of Smith and his 19th-century successors.   答案   46.其他领域的研究也有助于对此的理解:心理学和伦理学试图解释目标是如何形成的,历史记录着人们所追求的目标的变化,社会学则从社会环境的角度来解释人们的行为。   47.第一个领域,价格理论或微观经济学,解释在竞争的市场中供需间的相互作用是怎样导致了大量的个别价格、工资率、利润空间和租金的变化。   48.因为,按照凯恩斯的理论,不充分的总体需求会增加失业,建议的解决方式是企业扩大投资或政府增加开支,继而增加预算赤字。   49.古希腊的亚里士多德和柏图都在著作中谈到财富、财产和贸易问题,两人都对商业持有偏见,认为靠生意来谋生是不足取的。   50.在中世纪,罗马天主教会的经济学思想表达在其教法中,教法谴责从借贷中获利的行为,并认为商业地位劣于农业。   总体分析   本文主要介绍了经济学的研究发展历史。   第一段:经济学的定义及研究对象。   第二、三段:经济学的两大领域:微观经济学和宏观经济学。   第四、五段:经济学研究的古代和现代理论。   试题精解   46.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:并列分句、后置定语。   该句子中冒号后是并列的三个简单句。第一个分句中how引导的从句做explain的宾语;第二个和第三个分句中都有介词in的短语做后置定语,翻译时应提前。   词汇方面:contribute to意为“是……的原因;增进,有助于”;knowledge意为“知识;知晓,了解”,文中活译为“对…的理解”。   47.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句、状语。   句子的主干是The first explains how…。主语后的名词短语price theory or microeconomics是其同位语,因此翻译the first时,应增译为“第一个领域”。how引导宾语从句,其主干是the interplay … creates …。介词短语in competitive markets做地点状语,翻译时应前置。   词汇方面:interplay意为“相互影响”;a multitude of意为“许多的,大量的”;individual意为“个别的,单独的, 个人的”;margin意为“(时间、空间、金钱的)余地”,profit margin指“利润空间”。   48.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:词性转换。   该句是包含原因状语从句的复合句,句子主干是the indicated cure is…,表语由并列连词either … or…连接。   词汇方面:indicated是过去分词用做形容词,动词indicate意为“表明,暗示,提及,建议”,根据上下文indicated译为“建议的”。more investment,more spending和larger budget deficits是形容词比较级加名词,根据汉语习惯转换成动词加名词的搭配,即“扩大投资”、“增加开支”和“增加预算赤字”。   49.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句、分词做状语。   主句是Aristotle and … wrote about problems …,后面接有both of whom引导的定语从句,采用拆译法单独成句。句子最后的分词结构feeling that …在定语从句中做状语,翻译时也应单独成句,that后引导的是宾语从句,做feeling的宾语。   词汇方面:be prejudiced against意为“对…有偏见”,undesirable意为“不想要的,不得人心的”。   50.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:非谓语动词作后置定语、定语从句。   该句含有which引导的非限定性从句做定语,翻译时拆开单独成句,并重复先行词,做从句的主语。   词汇方面:condemn意为“谴责”,taking of interest是动名词结构,可增译为“获利的行为”。   全文翻译   正如大家所知道的,经济学是与生产、分配、交换和消费物品和服务相关的社会科学。经济学家关注个人、群体、商业企业和政府试图有效地实现他们选定的任何经济目标的方式。其他领域的研究也有助于对此的理解:心理学和伦理学试图解释目标是如何形成的,历史学记录着人们所追求的目标的变化,社会学则从社会环境的角度来解释人们的行为。   规范的经济学可分为两大主要的领域。第一个领域,价格理论或微观经济学,解释在竞争的市场中供需间的相互作用是怎样导致了大量的个别价格、工资率、利润空间和租金的变化。微观经济学认为人的行为是理性的。消费者努力以能带来最大愉悦的方式花费他们的收入。按经济学家所说,他们使效用最大化。对企业家而言,他们从经营中寻求最大的利润。   第二个领域,宏观经济学,是涉及国民收入和就业的现代理论。宏观经济学最早可追述到英国经济学家约翰。梅纳德。凯恩斯1935年所著的《就业、利息和货币通论》一书。他对繁荣和萧条的解释围绕消费者、商业投资者和政府对货物或服务的总体需求。因为,按照凯恩斯的理论,不充分的总体需求会增加失业,建议的解决方式是企业扩大投资或政府增加开支,继而增加预算赤字。   经济问题一直以来都占据着人们的思想。古希腊的亚里士多德和柏图都在著作中谈到财富、财产和贸易问题,两人都对商业持有偏见,认为靠生意来谋生是不足取的。罗马人从希腊人那里借用了经济学思想,对经商同样不屑一顾。在中世纪,罗马天主教会的经济学思想表达在其教法中,教法谴责从借贷中获利的行为,并认为商业地位劣于农业。   经济学作为一门现代研究学科,区别于道德哲学和政治学,可追述到苏格兰哲学家兼经济学家亚当。斯密1776年著的《国民财富的性质和原因的研究》。重商主义和重农主义是斯密的古典经济学及其19世纪后继者(新古典经济学)的理论先驱。   Section Ⅲ Writing   Part A 51. Directions:On your way from Beijing to Paris, you lost you luggage carried by the airline. Write a complaint letter to the service center of the Airline. In your letter, you should tell them 1) what happened to your luggage,2) what your luggage is like,3) what compensation you expect. You should write about 100 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)   一、审题与谋篇   本题要求写一封投诉信。写投诉信的目的是表达不满、愤怒等情绪,并希望遇到的问题能够得到解决。投诉的原因多种多样,如:顾客投宿服务或产品的质量差、价格高、没有达到标准;学生投诉食堂的饭菜又贵又难吃;居民投诉附近噪音大等。由于写信的目的主要是希望自己的声音能被听到,问题能够快速得到解决,因此写出恰当而有力的投诉信是非常重要的。写此类信时应尽量保持一种礼貌而坚定的语气,不能恐吓或威胁。注意用简洁而切题的方式把问题陈述清楚,详细描述所投诉的产品或服务,说明给你带来的不便,陈述你希望得到的问题解决方式,可以明确时间的期限。此外,写信时应表示出对得到公正对待的自信,但避免过于情绪化。   指导语中给出的情景是托运行李在航班上丢失,信的内容包括:(1)介绍你的行李所发生的状况;(2)说明行李的具体特征;(3)希望得到的赔偿。   二、参考范文   Dear Sir or Madam,I am writing because I need to complain to you about what happened to my luggage carried by your airlines. On Friday, June 2, 2006, I traveled on your airlines from Beijing to Paris. When I went to pick up my luggage in Paris, I was informed that it was missing. The lost luggage is a black suitcase, 50 cm in length and 30 cm in width, in which there are five volumes of valuable research papers. If they cannot be found for me, I am sure that you will agree to pay me ¥1000, the estimated worth of my luggage on my claim ticket, to compensate for my great loss. I have always enjoyed the good service of your airlines, and I look forward to receiving the same kind of good service in this matter. Sincerely Li Ming   Part B 52. Directions:Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should 1) describe the drawing, 2) interpret its implications, 3) give your comments. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)   一、审题谋篇   本题为图画式作文。一篇好的作文首先要中心明确,所以考试中,确定主题也成了我们的第一要务。由于指导语对主题的提示较少,所以本篇作文的关键是看图,尤其是图画的题目。在图画中,我们可以看到一匹抬起前腿,将要驰骋的骏马,题目为:千里之行,是从第一步开始的。可见,文章主题应围绕“第一步”与“千里之行”的关系展开论述,可以讨论“起步”或“行动”的重要性。   再看指导语可知,文章应以图画展示的内容为主题,(一)描述图画;(二)阐述图画所要表达的含义;(三)发表自己的看法。   二、参考范文   范文一As we can see in the picture, a horse is starting the first step in his journey vigorously. The prancing horse, together with the line of words beneath that every journey begins with the first step, implies the importance of beginnings, and the necessity of getting off to a right start in anything that one undertakes. As we all know, the foundations of a building must be strong, or else the whole structure will fall down someday. The pioneering of any enterprise always contains the soul of it, in which is wrapped the whole motive, purpose and plan of the venture. The success of autumn crops depends on the initial steps taken in the spring. Therefore, it seems that the beginning point is dynamic and alive and often more important than any other point in the journey. When asked about the key to success, a successful author replied that the most helpful thing was to start writing. Without taking the first step, potential genius will contents itself with mediocrity. Only by trying, the first can produce the second, the second the third, and so on to the very goal. In sum, there is a magic potential in the first step taken toward a successful end in view.   范文二As we can see in the picture, a horse is taking his first step of a journey. This beginning seems to be hard and painstaking, but every journey begins with the first step. No matter what we are going to do, we should start with our action. Though planning and dreaming is important, action is essential for our success. Maybe after all the efforts we still can‘t accomplish our aims, but taking no action can get us nowhere. For example, some students often complain about their bad luck when getting low marks in an exam; however, the reason for their failure is that most of them don’t listen carefully in class nor review their lessons after class. By contrast, those who get high marks have devoted much time and effort to learning. The most accomplished people in the world always have a history of making perseverant efforts, as Madam Cury and Edison did as scientists, Beethoven and Bach did as musicians, Marx and Confucius did as philosophers. In short, no pains no gains. Let us put our plans and aims into action. Only after great effort can we get what we want and live an accomplished life; otherwise, our life will be full of failure and disappointment, which is surely no one‘s choice.
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