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四级完形填空练习与解析(20)

英语网整理 | 2013-03-20
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  From childhood to old age, we all use language as a means of broadening our knowledge of ourselves and the world about us.When humans first __1__ , they were like newborn children, unable to use this __2__ tool.Yet once language developed, the possibilities for human kind‘s future __3__ and cultural growth increased.  Many linguists believe that evolution is __4__ for our ability to produce and use language.They __5__ that our highly evolved brain provides us __6__ an innate language ability not found in lower __7__ . Proponents of this innateness theory say that our __8__ for language is inborn, but that language itself develops gradually, __9__ a function of the growth of the brain during childhood.Therefore there are critical __10__ times for language development.  Current __11__ of innateness theory are mixed, however, evidence supporting the existence of some innate abilities is undeniable. __12__ , more and more schools are discovering that foreign languages are best taught in __13__ grades.Young children often can learn several languages by being __14__ to them, while adults have a much harder time learning another language once the __15__ of their first language have become firmly fixed.  __16__some aspects of language are undeniably innate, language does not develop automatically in a vacuum.Children who have been __17__ from other human beings do not possess language.This demonstrates that __18__ with other human beings isnecessary for proper language development.Some linguists believe that this is even more basic to human language __19__ than any innate capacities.  These theorists view language as imitative, learned behavior. __20__ , children learn language from their parents by imitating them.Parents gradually shape their child's lang uage skills by positively reinforcing precise imitations and negatively reinforcing imprecise ones.

  答案与解析:

  1.B

  此处意为:当人类刚刚开始进化,他们如同新生儿一样不会运用语言这种工具。evolved逐渐发展,进化符合题意。generated生殖,发展;born (bear的过去分词)不能作谓语动词;originated起源,不能用first修饰。

  2.A

  根据语法分析,答案应用来修饰语言的。valuable珍贵的;appropriate合适的,适当的;convenient方便的,便利的;favorite最喜欢的。语言并不是人类选择的结果,而是人类在进化过程中慢慢发展起来的,对人类来说,应当是珍贵的。

  3.A

  此处意思是:语言的发展增加了人类未来的成就和文化进步的可能性。attainments成就;feasibility可行性;entertainments娱乐;evolution进化。

  4.D

  此处意为:许多语言学家认为进化使人们产生和具备了语言的能力。固定短语be responsible for对……负责,是……的原由。其它选项不与for搭配。

  5.C

  根据语法分析,空格后应是一个宾语从句,而A,B,D三项后都不能接从句做直接宾语。confirm(确认)+名词;inform(通知)sb.of sth.;convince(使某人确信) sb.of sth.

  6.D

  固定搭配provide sb.with sth.意为“向(人)提供(物)”

  7.B

  此处意为:我们高度发达的大脑是我们具备了其它低等动物所不具备的语言能力。显然,这里是把人和低等动物相比较。因此选organisms有机体,生物体。

  8.A

  此句意思是:人类的语言能力是与生俱来的,但语言本身也在逐渐发展,所以这种能力应该是潜在的。potential潜力;performance履行;preference偏爱;passion激情。

  9.A

  此句句义是:语言本身作为童年时期大脑生长的一种功能,其发展是缓慢的。as (作为,当作)合乎题意。Like作为介词的意思是“像……一样”。

  10.B

  此句意为:语言的发展有一个关键期,人体的成长是生物变化的过程。biological生物的;ideological思想上的;social社会的;psychological心理的。

  11.A

  此处意为:目前人们对“先天论”评论观点不一,但是支持某些天生能力的证据却是确凿无疑的。reviews评论;reference参考;reaction反应;recommendation推荐。

  12.C

  从11题可看出,作者是倾向于先天论的,为了进一步证明先天论是有道理的,作者选择了以学校为例加以说明,因此这里应填一个表示递进关系的词Indeed(甚至)。

  13.D

  此处意思是:越来越多的学校发现在什么年级学外语较容易,根据常识(低年级学外语较容易)以及后文的Young children often can learn several languages by being 14 to them, while adults…可以选定答案。

  14.B

  此处意为:通过接触多种语言,孩子们可以学会好几种语言。be exposed to是固定搭配,接触到。reveal(显露)sth.to sb,不合题意,因本题中的them指languages。其余选项不与to搭配。engage in从事;be involved in参与。

  15.C

  此句意思是:一旦母语的规则被深深印入脑海中,成年人就很难再学好另一种语言。rules规则,规律;regulations规定;formations构成,构造;constitutions宪法,章程。

  16.A

  分析上下文的逻辑关系,从句意思是:语言的某些方面肯定是先天的。主句意思是:语言不会在与人隔绝的状况下自行发展。前后应为转折关系。

  17.D

  此句意为:与人隔绝的儿童不能掌握好一门语言。isolated孤立的,与人隔绝的;distinguished区别的,杰出的;different不同的;protected受到保护的。

  18.D

  此句总结前几句,意为:必须通过与他人交往,语言才能够发展。interaction相互作用;exposition暴露;comparison比较;contrast对比。

  19.A

  根据分析,本句中的“this”和“even more basic”分别指代上句的“interaction with other human beings”和“necessary”,此处所填词对应上文中的language development。也就是说,language acquisition语言习得。appreciation欣赏,感激;requirement要求;alternative转移,转变,转换。

  20.C

  本句功能是以另一种方式解释前文中的“imitative, learned behavior.(模仿性的后天行为)”。In other words换言之,换句话说;As a result结果是;After all毕竟;Above all首先。
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