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2014年职称英语综合B真题部分

英语网 | 2014-09-02
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  发布“2014年职称英语《综合B》真题”,更多关于2014职称英语考试答案、职称英语考试真题,请访问英语网!   特别说明:以下内容为真题原文出处,题型有所改变,请考生留意!   特别说明:原文来自于职称英语教材综合类概括大意第一篇   第一篇 The Making of a Success Story   1 IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer, and the man behind it is Ingvar Kamprad, one of the world's most successful entrepreneurs. Born in Sweden in 1926, Kamprad was a natural businessman. As a child, he enjoyed selling things and made small profits from selling matches, seeds, and pencils in his community. When Kamprad was 17, his father gave him some money as a reward for his good grades. Naturally he used it to start up a business一IKEA.   2 IKEA's name comes from Kamprad's initials and the place where he grew up . Today IKEA is known for its modern, minimalist furniture1, but it was not a furniture company in the beginning. Rather, IKEA sold all kinds of miscellaneous goods. Kamprad's wares included anything that he could sell for profits at discounted prices2, including watches, pens and stockings.   3 IKEA first began to sell furniture through a mail-order catalogue in 1947. The fUrniture was all designed and made by manufacturers near Kamprad's home. Initial sales were very encouraging, so Kamprad expanded the product line. Furniture was such a successful aspect of the business that IKEA became solely a furniture company in 1951.   4 In 1953 IKEA opened its first showroom in Almhult, Sweden. IKEA is known today for its spacious stores with furniture iti attractive settings, but in the early 1950s, people ordered from catalogues. Thus response to the first showroom was overwhelmiig: people loved being able to see and try the furniture before buying it. This led to increased sales and the company continued to thrive. By 1955, IKEA was designing all its own furniture.   5 In 1956 Kamprad saw a man disassembling a table to make it easier to transport. Kamprad was inspired. The man had given him a great idea: flat packaging3. Flat packaging would mean lower shipping costs for IKEA and lower prices for customers. IKEA tried it and sales soared. The problem was that people had to assemble furniture themselves, but over time, even this grew into an advantage for IKEA. Nowadays, IKEA is often seen as having connotations of self-sufficiency. This image has done wonders for the company, leading to better sales and continued expansion.   6 Today there are over 200 stores in 32 countries. Amazingly, Ingvar Kamprad has managed to keep IKEA a privately-held company. In 2004 he was named the world's richest man. He currently lives in Switzerland and is retied from the day-to-day operations of IKEA. IKEA itself, though, just keeps on growing.   词汇:   entrepreneur /,entr pr 'n :/ n.企业家   ware /we / n.货物   minimalist /'minim list / adj.最简单的   self-sufficiency /'self-s 'fi nsi/ n.自足   注释:   1. minimalist furniture:风格简约的家具   2. discounted prices:折扣价   3. flat packaging:平板包装   练习:   1. Paragraph 2_________   2. Paragraph 3_________   3. Paragraph 4_________   4. Paragraph 5_________   5. Even when he was only a child, _________.   6. _________, and years later became a big company specialized in manufacturing and selling of furniture.   7. Customers liked the idea of IKEA's showrooms because _________.   8. As flat packaging saves money for both IKEA and the customers, _________   2014年综合类职称英语教材概括大意与完成句子   答案与题解:   1. C 第二段介绍了IKEA这个店名的来源以及它刚开始的时候是一家什么样的小杂货店   2. D 第三段讲了IKEA通过邮购方式销售自己设计、自己制造的家具,业绩喜人,从而扩大生产线,专事家具产销。   3. B 1953年IKEA引入展示厅的做法得到很好的反响,销售大大增加。   4. E Kamprad从别人拆卸家具中得到启发,于是试行销售平板包装的家具,既利己又利人,并使独立自行成为IKEA的一个特色。   5. C 时间状语从句告诉我们这里要讲的是Ingvar小时候的事情,文章的第一段就说了他从小就会做买卖。   6. A 这句话的后半句说IKEA几年以后才变成一家专营家具的公司,前半句很可能讲它的前身是什么。   7. E 这句的主句讲了顾客们喜欢IKEA的展示厅,从句用because引导,很清楚要求给出原因。   8. B 这句先给了原因,即平板包装对双方来说都省钱,那么结果便是双方都欢迎。   ※ ※   ※ ※   【】 ※ 搜索公众微信号""   发布“2014年职称英语《综合B》真题”,更多关于2014职称英语考试答案、职称英语考试真题,请访问网!   特别说明:原文来自于2014年职称英语教材综合类阅读判断第十篇   第十篇:The Workers' Role in Management   Traditionally, it has been the workers' role to work and management's role to manage. Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought to consulting the labor force. Managers have rarely felt compelled to1obtain the workers' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees. At most, companies have provided"suggestion boxes" in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures. In recent years, however, many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor一they have a vital stake in the company2and may be able to make significant contributions to its management. Furthermore, major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents. This is particularly true of plant closings, which may put thousands on the unemployment lines. Should workers, then, play a stronger role in management?   Workers should have a role in management. At the very least, the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions . Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs, often with no warning. At least 90 days' notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust. Management should consult workers before closing a plant, because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.   It should become a general practice to include work s in some managerial decision making4. There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups. if rank-and-file workers are given a voice in5the planning and management of the work flow, they will help to make improvements, their morale will rise6, and their productivity will increase. As a further incentive, they must be given a share in the company's profits. This can be done through employee stockownership plans, bonuses, or rewards for efficiency and productivity. Finally, when a plant can no longer operate at a profit, the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves.   词汇:   suggestion box 意见箱,建议箱   concession /k n'se n/ n.让步   dependent /di'pend nt /=dependant n.受扶养者,受扶养的家属   employee stockownership 雇员持股权   layoff /'lei f/ n.停工,停歇;临时解雇;失业期   注释:   1. Managers have rarely felt compelled to...:管理者们很少觉得应该……。feel compelled to do 的意思是“觉得被迫干……”,在本文拟译为“觉得应该……”更合适些。   2. ... they have a vital stake in the company:……他们对公司有很大的利害关系。have a stake in 的意思是“对……有利害关系”。例如:Each of us has a stake in the outcome of the conference.会议结果对我们每一个人都有利害关系。   这个短语也有“……有股份”的意思。例如:   They have a large stake in the oil industly.他们在石油业有大量股份。   3. rank-and-file workers:普通工人   4. managerial decision making:管理决策的制定   5. give sb. a voice in:在……方面给某人发言权,即发表意见的权利。例如:His parents give him "voice in almost anything.几乎任何事情他父母都让他有发言权。   6. ... their morale will rise:……他们的士气会增加   练习:   1. Traditional workers showed no interest in management.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   2. In recent years many management specialists have been arguing for the workers' role in management with two major reasons.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   3. Since policy decisions are business secrets of a firm, workers should not be informed of them.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   4. Before closing, a plant should put up a notice and keep it for 90 days.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   5. The workers' participation in management might save a plant from closing down.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   6. One of the advantages of involving workers in making a decision is that the interpersonal relationship between workers and managers can be improved.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   7. An efficient and productive worker should be rewarded with anything but shares of a plant.   A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned   2014年职称英语教材综合类阅读判断   第十篇:The Workers' Role in Management   答案与题解:   1. C 文章第一段说在传统上,工人的职责是干活,因而无法介人管理,但并没有说工人对管理不感兴趣。   2. A 第一段说近年来一些企业管理专家指出应该让工人参与一些管理工作,一方面是因为这可以调动他们的积极性为工厂作贡献,另一方面是因为管理层作出的重大决定对工人及其家人的生活会产生重大影响。   3. B 第二段前两句说工人应当参与管理,至少应当告诉工人工厂的重大决策。   4. B 第二段倒数第四行说工厂在宣布破产关闭之前应当提前90天通知工人,以便让他们有时间做一些调整。"90 days' notice”的意思是“提前90天通知”,而不是“贴出告示,并保留90天”。   5. A 第二段末尾说如果让工人参与管理工作,当工厂出现危机时工人可以献计献策以提高生产率,降低成本,而且他们还可能做出一些让步或牺牲以使工厂渡过难关。由此可以推断,如果让工人参与管理,他们有时会拯救一家工厂。   6. C 文章最后一段列举了让工人参与管理的一系列好处,但并没有明确提到可以改善劳资关系。   7. B 最后一段倒数第四行说作为一种鼓励机制,可以让工人分享一部分利润。具体可以通过股票持有权方案、红利或者发效益奖的方式来奖励那些工作出色的工人。   发布“2014年职称英语《综合B》真题”,更多关于2014职称英语考试答案、职称英语考试真题,请访问网!   ※ 【】※   注:本题由2013年的一篇补全短文改编,仅供参考!   The World’s Longest Bridge   Rumor has it that1 a legendary six—headed monster lurks in the deep waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy and the island of Sicily.____ ____ When completed in 2010,the world ’ s longest bridge will weigh nearly 300,000 tons—equivalent to the iceberg that sank the Titanic—and stretch 5 kilometers long.“That’s nearly 50 percent longer than any other bridge ever built,”says structural engineer Shane Rixon.   ____ ____They’ re suspension bridges,massive structures built to span vast water channels or gorges.A suspension bridge needs just two towers to shoulder the structure’s mammoth weight,thanks to hefty supporting cables slung between the towers and anchored firmly in deep pools of cement at each end of the bridge.The Messina Strait Bridge will have two 54,100-ton towers,which will support most of the bridge’ s load.The beefy cables of the bridge.each 1.2 meter in diameter, will hold up the longest and widest bridge deck ever built.   When construction begins on the Messina Strait Bridge in 2005,the first job will be to erect two 370 meter-tall steel towers.________ Getting these cables up will be something2.It ’ s not just their length—totally 5.3 kilometers—but their weight.________   After lowering vertical“ suspender ”cables from the main cables.builders will erect a 60 meter-wide 54.630-ton steel roadway, or deck——wide enough to accommodate 12 lanes of traffic.The deck’s weight will pull down on the cables with a force of 70,500 tons.In return,the cables yank up against their firmly rooted anchors with a force of 1 39。000 tons—equivalent to the weight of about 100,000 cars.Those anchors are essential.________   注释:   1. Rumor has it that :传说中的…… Rumor has it that 这是一种固定结构。it 是宾语,that 引导的从句具体说明 it 的内容。   2. something :值得重视的人或事   练习:   A. Some environmentalists are against the project on biological grounds.   B. What do the world’s longest bridges have in common?   C. If true,one day you might spy the beast while zippingacross the Messina Strait Bridge.   D. They’re what will keep the bridge from going anywhere.   E. The second job will be to pull two sets of steel cables across the strait,each set being a bundle of 44,352 individual steel wires.   F. They will tip up the scales at 166,500 tons—more than half the bridge’s total mass.   答案与题解:   1. C 选项C中有一个关键词beast,与第一句中的monster相呼应。所以,C是答案。   2. B 第二段第二句的主语是 They。由于表语是suspension bridges,They 替代的一定是前面句子出现过的bridges。六个选项中,只有B含有bridges。填在第二段段首,意思连贯。   3. E “空3”前面的句子中有 the first job 这几个词。有first,必有second/then。六个选项中,只有E含有The second job。所以,E是答案。   4.F “空4”前面的句子说的是,把这些吊索吊高定位是有难度的,不仅仅由于它们很长,还由于它们很重。F具体地介绍了它们的重量,应该是“空4”前面的句子的后续句。   5.D “空5”前面的句子说的是,桥桩很重要。为什么很重要呢?D解释了桥桩的作用,意思连贯,所以是答案。
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