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2014年职称英语综合A真题部分

英语网 | 2014-09-02
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  发布“2014年职称英语《综合A》真题”,更多关于2014职称英语考试答案、职称英语考试真题,请访问英语网!   特别说明:以下内容为真题原文出处,题型有所改变,请考生留意!   第十四篇 The National Trust   The National Trust in Britain plays an increasingly important part in the preservation forpublic enjoyment of the best that is left unspoiled of the British countryside. Although the Trusthas received practical and moral support from the Government, it is not a rich Governmentdepartment. It is a voluntary association of people who care for the unspoiled countryside andhistoric buildings of Britain. It is a charity which depends for its existence on voluntary supportfrom members of the public'. Its primary duty is to protect places of great natural beauty andplaces of historical interest.   The attention of the public was first drawn to the dangers threatening the great old houses andcastles of Britain by the death of Lord Lothian, who left his great seventeenth-century house to theTrust together with the 4500-acre park and estate surrounding it.This gift attracted wide publicityand started the Trust's "Country House Scheme”. Under this scheme, with the help of theGovernment and the general public, the Trust has been able to save and make accessible to thepublic about one hundred and fifty of these old houses2. Last year about one and three quaners of amillion people paid to visit these historic houses, usually at a very small charge.   In addition to country houses and open spaces the Trust now owns some examples of ancientwind and water mills3 , nature reserves4, five hundred and forty farms and nearly two thousand fivehundred cottages or small village houses, as well as some complete villages. In these villages noone is allowed to build, develop 'or disturb the old village environment in any way and all thehouses are maintained in their original sixteenth-century style. Over four hundred thousand acres ofcoastline , woodland, and hill country are protected by the Trust and no development or disturbancesof any kind are permitted. The public has free access to these areas and is only asked to respect thepeace, beauty and wildlife.   So it is that over the past eighty years the Trust has become a big and important organizationand an essential and respected part of national life, preserving all that is of great natural beauty andof historical significance not only for future generations of Britons but also for the millions oftourists who each year invade Britain in search of a great historic and cultural heritage.   注释:   1. It is a charity which depends for its existence on voluntary support from members of the public.   它是个慈善机构,靠公众中的会员自愿支持它才得以生存。depend on someone forsomething:在某事上依靠某人。又如:We depend on John for news supplies.在消息来源方面我们依靠约翰。原句中由于depend on的宾语voluntary support from members of the public较长,因此,将for its existence提前。这种现象本文中还有另外两处。第一句中的for publicenjoyment和第二段倒数第二句中的accessible to the public都分别被提前。   2.,.. the Trust has been able to save and make accessible to the public about one hundred and fiftyof these old houses.……托管委员会拯救了大约150座这样的老房子,并使大众能参观这些老房子。make something accessible to someone:使某人能接触某物。又如:Theschool has decided to make sports facilities more readily accessible to students.学校决定让学生能更方便地使用体育设施。   3.wind and water mills:靠风力和水流驱动的磨坊   4.nature reserves:自然保护区   练习:   1. The National Trust is financed by both personal donations and government allocations.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   2. British people's dependence on the National Trust to protect places of great natural beauty andplaces of historical interest has been increasing.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   3. Lord Lothian was one of the founders of the National Trust.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   4. The Trust's "Country House Scheme" provides an easy access for the public t0 150 0ld housesor so.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   5.A project which is t0 fortify a 16th century old house but keep its original style will not beapproved by the National Trust.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   6. The public may enter a wood under the protection of the National Trust without paying anymoney, but they are not allowed to bring in canned food and beverage.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   7. The National Trust helps promote tourism in Britain.   A. Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned   答案与题解:   1.B文章第一段说国家托管委员会尽管从政府那儿得到实际上和道义上的支持,其财政单纯依靠私人捐款,而没有政府拨款。   2.A第一段第一句话说在英国,国家托管委员会在保护名胜古迹方面扮演着越来越重要的角色。倒数第二段讲该委员会管理着面积广大的各种名胜古迹、自然景观。最后一段说经过80年的发展,该组织已成为一个重要组织,成为国民生活中必不可少、受人尊敬的一部分。   因此我们可以说英国民众越来越依靠托管委员会来保护风景名胜。   3.C第二段提到Lord Lothian在死后把一所17世纪的古宅及其周围4 500英亩的土地赠与托管委员会,但是没有提到他是该委员会的建立者之一。   4.A第二段说托管委员会实行的“乡村房屋计划”保护了大约150座古宅,并向公众开放,收取少量的参观费。因此我们可以说该计划使公众可以较为容易地进人大约150座古宅参观。   5.B第三段说在托管委员会所管理的自然保护区以及磨坊、农场、村舍、村庄等人文景观中任何人都不允许以任何方式建造、扩建房屋,破坏原有的环境。所有的房子都保持着原有的16世纪的风貌。因此一个加固一所老房子但仍保持其16世纪风格的计划是不违背这一精神的,不会被托管委员会否决。   6.C第三段说托管委员会管理着大面积的海岸线、林地和山丘起伏的乡村,公众可以免费进入这些地区,但是不允许破坏宁静、美丽的环境,不允许猎杀野生动物。但是并没有提到不允许带罐装食品和饮料入内。   7.A文章最后一段说托管委员会保护风景名胜、历史景观不仅造福于英国人民的子孙后代,而且造福于每年到英国旅游的数百万观光客。由此我们可以推断托管委员会的工作促进了英国旅游业的发展。   译文   第十四篇 国家托管委员会   英国的国家托管委员会在保持未被破坏的英国乡村遗迹,使民众得以最大限度地享用它们方面扮演着越来越重要的角色。尽管托管委员会得到政府实际上和道义上的支持,但它并不是一个富有的政府部门。它是由关心英国乡村遗迹和古建筑物的人们自愿组成的一个团体。   它是个慈善机构,靠公众中的会员自愿支持它才得以生存。它最基本的任务是保护自然风景区和具有历史意义的名胜古迹。   最早引起公众关注的是洛雨恩勋爵去世后留给托管委员会他的一座17世纪时的房屋及其周围4 500英亩的公园和地产。这些古老房子和城堡面临着被破坏的威胁。这一遗产大大地吸引了公众,同时使托管委员会开始实行“乡村房屋计划”。在政府和广大公众的帮助下,托管委员会根据计划已经拯救了大约150座这样的老房子,并使大众能参观这些老房子。去年大约有175万人花很少的费用参观了这些古老房屋。   除了这些乡村房屋和空地之外,托管委员会还拥有一些靠风力和水流驱动的磨坊、自然保护区、540个农场以及大约2 500座村舍,以及一些独立完整的小村庄。在这些小村庄里所有的房子大都保持着它们16世纪时的原样,不允许任何人以任何方式建造、开发或破坏它的环境。40多万英亩的海岸线、森地和山丘起伏的乡村也交由托管委员会保护,不允许任何方式的开发或破坏。公众仅可以自由进入这些地方,但要求不破坏那里的宁静、美丽的环境,不允许猎杀野生动物。   这样经过80多年的时间,托管委员会逐渐成为一个庞大的重要组织,成为国民生活必不可少的受人尊敬的组成部分。它保护所有的风景名胜和历史景观,不仅造福于英国人民的子孙后代,而且也使每年涌人英国的数百万旅游者能领略到英国的历史和文化传统。   发布“2014年职称英语《综合A》真题”,更多关于2014职称英语考试答案、职称英语考试真题,请访问网!   第十二篇:Obesity Causes Global Warming   The list of ills attributable to obesity keeps growing: Last week, obese people were accused of causing global warming.   This conclusion comes from Sheldon Jacobson of the University of Illinois, US, and a doctoral student, Laura McLay. Their study calculates how much extra gasoline is needed to haul fat Americans around. The answer, they say, is a billion gallons of gas per year. ____1____   There has been calls for taxes on junk food2 in recent years. ____2____"We tax cigarettes partly because of their health cost," Schmidt said. "Similarly, leading a lazy life style will end up costing taxpayers more."   US political scientist Eric Oliver said his first instinct was to laugh at these gas and fast food arguments. But such claims are getting attention.   At the US Obesity Society's annual meeting, one person correlated obesity with car accident deaths, and another correlated obesity with suicides. ____3____"The funny thing was that everyone took it seriously." Oliver said.   In a 1960s study, children were shown drawings of children with disabilities and without them, and a drawing of an obese child. They were asked which they would want for a friend? ____4____   Three researchers recently repeated the study using college students. Once again, almost no one, not even obese people, liked the obese person. "Obesity was stigmatized." the researchers said.   But, researchers say, getting thin is not like quitting smoking. People struggle to stop smoking, and, in the end, many succeed. Obesity is different. But, not because obese people don't care. ____5____Genes also play a part.   词汇:   obese / u'bi: s/ adj.肥胖的   correlate /'k r leit/v.与……相联系   stigmatize /'stigm taiz/ v.侮辱   haul /haul/v.运输   stigma /'stigm / n.坏名声   注释:   1.carbon dioxide:二氧化碳   2.junk food:垃圾食品   3.cause-and-effect relationship:因果关系   练习:   A A meager diet may keep you thin.   B It means an extra 11 million tons of carbon dioxide.   C The obese child was picked last.   D US economist Martin Schmidt suggests a tax on fast food delivered to people's cars.   E Science has shown that they have limited personal control over their weight.   F No one asked whether there was really a cause-and-effect relationship.   2014年综合类职称英语教材补全短文   第十二篇:Obesity Causes Global Warming   答案与题解:   1.B 第二段讲到Sheldon Jacobson和Laura McLay在一项研究中计算了运送美国胖子一年需要多消耗10亿加仑的汽油。从所给的这些句子来看,只有B是连贯的。B句为:It means an extra 11 million tons of carbon dioxide.这意味着多放出1100万吨二氧化碳。   2.D 第三段的第一个句子,即空格前的句子,讲的是:近些年,不断有人提出要给垃圾食品征税。这是个主题句,那么后面的句子讲得应该更具体一点。D说得更具体,是这么说的:US economist Martin Schmidt suggests a tax on fast food delivered to people's cars.美国经济学家Martin Schmidt建议对送到车上的快餐要征税。另外,从主题的发展来看,也只有这个句子最合适。   3.F 第五段开始时说到,在美国肥胖协会的年会上,有人把车祸造成的死亡跟肥胖联系了起来,也有人把自杀跟肥胖联系了起来。从剩下的句子来看,只有填入F是连贯的。F说的是:No one asked, whether there was really a cause-and-effect relationship.没有人问一问它们之间是否真正存在因果关系。   4.C 第六段主要是讲一个试验,先让儿童看一组画,画里有正常的儿童和残疾的儿童,还有一个小胖子,而后问他们愿意和哪个小孩做朋友。C是对这个问题合适的回答。C句为:The obese child was picked last.最后挑的是小胖子。   5.E 最后一段讲的是减肥跟戒烟不一样,在一定程度上受到基因的控制,因此很难。所以只有E是合适的。E是这么说的:Science has shown that they have limited personal control over their weight.科学已经表明,胖子自己几乎是无法控制体重的。
 
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