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奥巴马将发布美国新国家安全战略声明

英语网 | 2014-09-29
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  Obama to issue a new statement of US national security strategy   President Obama will formally present a new national security strategy early next year, identifying his foreign policy priorities for the remainder of his time in office, the White House said Friday.   The new policy document will be the second of Obama's administration and will likely update the previous one, released in May 2010, in several important areas. Those include policies for fighting the next phase of the war against al-Qaeda, the shift of national security resources to Asia and a plan to manage declining defense budgets amid fiscal strain.   The administration will present another strategy paper on how it intends to achieve the policy ambitions to be outlined in the new national security doctrine sometime in the spring, Obama told Congress in a letter made public Friday.   The new strategy is being drafted at a time when Obama continues to face questions over his counterterrorism policy, particularly the use of drones in Afghanistan and Pakistan as the US military withdraws from that region.   Disclosures over the scope of the National Security Agency s eavesdropping practices have also placed Obama at odds with some foreign leaders, including US allies, and prompted him to pledge reforms in the way intelligence gathering is conducted.   The new security strategy will likely reflect some of those proposals and expand on administration plans in the Asia-Pacific region as the country shifts from a war footing in the decade since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to new diplomatic and economic initiatives.   The National Security Strategy document falls under a 1986 law requiring the president to present Congress with an annual strategic statement. Most administrations have been inconsistent in meeting that obligation. George W. Bush, for example, issued only two during his eight years in office.   The policy statement sets administration priorities inside the government and communicates them to Congress, the American public and the world. It also is intended as a framework for strategy documents produced by other parts of the government, including the Pentagon s national defense strategy.   Obama s first National Security Strategy ran 52 pages and set out a course for ending the US military involvement in Iraq.   Although the strategy asserted America s central role in the world, it also warned that when we overuse our military might, or fail to invest in or deploy complementary tools, or act without partners, then our military is overstretched.   Americans bear a greater burden, and our leadership around the world is too narrowly identified with military forces, the document reads. It lists as the country's enduring national interests security, prosperity, values and international order.   In recent months, Obama has outlined some of his foreign policy priorities for the rest of his second term, telling the UN General Assembly in September that in the Middle East he would focus on securing a nuclear agreement with Iran and peace between the Israelis and Palestinians.   That emphasis will likely be reflected in the updated strategy document, which will also likely look beyond the official conclusion of US combat operations in Afghanistan at the end of 2014.   据美国《华盛顿邮报》报道,白宫11月29号称,奥巴马总统将于2014年初正式呈报一份新的《新国家安全战略》,明确他在位所剩时间内外交政策的重点。   这份新的政策文件将会是奥巴马政府发布的第二份此类文件,在几个重要问题上很可能是第一份(发布于2010年5月份)的修改版。这些重要问题涵盖下一个阶段同基地组织之间的战争、向亚洲转移国家安全资源以及在财政压力下管理缩减的国防预算计划。   在11月29日公布的一份信件中,奥巴马告诉国会,其政府将于2014年春季呈报另一份战略文件,文件将详述如何实现在《新国家安全战略》中提出的政策目标。   奥巴马拟定这份政策文件的同时,也正是面临外界对他反恐政策的质疑,特别是随着美国军队从阿富汗和巴基斯坦撤军,美国在这些地方使用无人飞机事件。   美国国家安全局窃听对象行为的范围遭披露后,奥巴马也与包括美国盟友在内的一些外国领导者产生了分歧,这促使他承诺改革信息情报收集方式。   2001年9月11日恐怖袭击事件让美国在随后的十年内都处于战备状态,随着美国从战备状态转入新外交和经济提案,《新国家安全战略》很可能会体现这些提案中的某些举措,并详述政府在亚太地区的计划。   《国家安全战略》是根据1986年的一部法律制订的。该法律要求美国总统必须每年呈报给国会一份年度政策声明。几乎各届政府都没履行这项职责。比如乔治 W 布什总统在位八年就只发布两份。   政策声明为政府内部划定施政重点,并把这些重点传达给国会、美国民众以及整个世界。这项政策声明也能作为其他政府部门拟定的政策文件框架,包括五角大楼国防战略。   奥巴马第一份《国家安全战略》总共52页,里面阐明美国结束军事介入伊拉克的过程。   虽然该战略宣称美国在世界扮演核心角色,同时也提醒 我们若是滥用军事力量,或是无力投资或部署辅助性工具,亦或者没有协同盟友单独行动的话,那我们军队战线就太长了 。   文件还写道: (那样的话)美国就会承受更大的压力,如果把我们在世界范围的领导等同于军事力量领导,那就太狭隘了。 文件罗列出美国 经久不衰的国家利益 :安全、繁荣、价值观和国际秩序。   最近几个月,奥巴马拟出连任期剩下这段时间内他的外交政策重点。在九月份召开的联合国大会上,奥巴马称他将把重点放在和伊朗达成核协议、以及与以色列人和巴基斯坦人达成和平协议上。   他强调的这些重点很有可能出现在修改版的《新国家安全战略》。这份新战略也有望涵盖2014年底在阿富汗正式结束美国作战行动的相关事宜。
 
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