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大学英语四级语法精要:现在分词及动名词1

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大学英语四级语法精要:现在分词及动名词 2. V+ing形式(现在分词及动名词) 1) 形式 a) 完成式: 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生, 通常用动名词的完成形式.
He didn’t mention having met me.
I regret not having taken her advice.
在某些动词后(或成语中), 常用(或可以用)动名词的一般形式, 尽管动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的.
Excuse me for coming late.
I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere.
现在分词的完成式主要用在状语中, 表示这动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生.
Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.
Having found the cause, they were able to propose a remedy.
另外, 独立结构也可用现在分词的完成形式.
The guests having left, they resumed their discussion.
The children, having eating their fill, were allowed to leave the table.
b) 被动式: 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形式.
His being neglected by the host added to his uneasiness.
He couldn’t bear being made fun of like that.
但要注意, 在want, need, deserve, require 等动词后, 尽管表示的是被动的意思, 却用动名词的主动形式.
My pen needs filling.
The point deserves mentioning.
This problem requires studying with great care.
在worth这个形容词后情形也是这样.
Her method is worth trying.
现在分词的被动式可以用来作定语, 宾语补足语, 状语及用于独立结构中.
This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory.
You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere.
Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse.
These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to the customers.

c) 完成被动式: 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生, 有时需要用动名词的完成被动式.
I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.
但在多数情况下都避免使用这一形式, 而用一般被动形式代替, 以免句子显得累赘. 现在分词的完成被动式一般用来作状语或用于独立结构中.
Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?
The decision having been made, the next problem was how to make a good plan.
All the compositions having been written and collected, the teacher sent the students home.
2) 句法功用 a) 作主语:
Walking is good exercise.
It’s nice talking to you.
There is no denying the fact that the new method has greatly raised labour productivity.
b) 作宾语:
Your shoes need polishing.
You mustn’t delay sending the tractors over.
He avoided giving us a definite answer.
c) 作介词宾语: 动名词作介词宾语用的时候最多. 它常可以用在某些成语后面, 常见的有: insist on, persist in, think of, dream of, object to, suspect…of, accuse…of, charge…with, hear of, approve of, prevent…from, keep…from, stop…from, refrain from, be engaged in, look forward to, opposed to, depend on, thank…for, feel like, excuse…for, aim at, devote…to, set about, spend…in, get (be) used to, be fond of, be capable of, be afraid of, be tired of, be sick of, succeed in, be interested in, feel (be) ashamed of, be proud of, be keen on, be responsible for. d) 作表语:
The real problem is getting to know the needs of the people.
动名词和不定式都可以作主语或表语. 一般说来, 在表示抽象的一般的行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某词动作, 特别是将来的动作时, 多用不定式. e) 作宾语补足语: 分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, find, keep, get, have等动词后作宾语补足语.
The words immediately set us all laughing.
Once we caught him dozing off in class.
His remark left me wondering what he was driving at.

在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等动词后, 及可用现在分词, 也可用不定式构成宾语补足语. 用现在分词时, 表示动作正在发生, 用不定式时表示动作发生了.
Do you hear someone knocking at the door?
Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times.

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大学英语四级语法精要:非谓语动词2 大学英语四级语法精要:非谓语动词1
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