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大学英语四级语法精要:现在分词及动名词2

本站原创 | 2015-01-20
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  大学英语四级语法精要:现在分词及动名词2 f) 作状语: 现在分词作状语时, 通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作, 来对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬.   I ran out of the house shouting.   I got home, feeling very tired.   Driving to Chicago that night, I was struck by a sudden thought.   现在分词短语有时可以用作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.   Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.   Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note.   Having already seen the film twice, she didn’t want to go to the cinema.   现在分词短语有时可用作时间状语, 相当于when引起的从句:   Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together.   如果两个动作是完全同时发生的, 多用when 或while加分词这种结构.   Be careful when crossing the street.   When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.   She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing.   3) 前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构: 一个动名词前面可以加一个物主代词(或名词的所有格结构), 来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语.   Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.   Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself.   Do you mind my reading your paper?   They insisted on my staying there for supper.   如果不是在句子开头, 这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格), 这比用所有格更自然一些.   I don’t mind him going.   She hates people losing their temper.   4) 只能用动名词作宾语的动词: suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, admit, enjoy, leave off, require, postpone, put off, delay, practise, fancy, excuse, pardon, advise, consider, deny, endure, escape, miss   5) 既可用动名词, 也可用不定式作宾语的动词: love, like, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, intend, attempt, can’t bear, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret, neglect, try, deserve, can’t afford等.   有时两种结构之间意义差别不大, 有时却有不同的意思. 在remember, regret, want, try等词后差别是比较明显的.   I remember seeing her once somewhere.   I must remember to take my notebooks with me.   I regret not having accepted your advice.   I regret to say I haven’t given you enough help.   She doesn’t want (need) to come.   The house wants (needs) cleaning.   We must try to get everything done in time.   Let’s try doing the work some other way.   6) 悬垂修饰: 分词作状语时, 表示的必须是主语的一个动作或状态.   Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (walking是we的动作, 正确)   Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (错误)   Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (正确)   Standing on the tower, the whole village could be seen. (错误)   3. 分词   1) 意义: 过去分词通常来自及物动词, 带有被动意义和完成意义; 而现在分词有的来自及物动词, 有的来自不及物动词, 通常带有主动意义和未完成意义.   frozen food a freezing wind   a bored traveller a boring journey   a lost cause a losing battle   a conquered army a conquering army   a finished article the last finishing touch   the spoken word a speaking bird   a closed shop the closing hour   a recorded talk a recording machine   来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.   the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors   用作后置修饰语的过去分词一般都带有修饰语或其他成分, 在意义上相当于关系分句.   Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.   2) 句法作用   a) 作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队, canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区   分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复, highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品, man-made satellite人造卫星   b) 作补足语: 可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:   see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.   I saw the students assembled in the hall.   We found her greatly changed.   make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:   I have my hair cut every ten days.   She got her bad tooth pulled out.   Please keep us informed of the latest developments.   like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:   I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.   He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.   c) 过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.   Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,   Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.   过去分词短语也可作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.   Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.   有时也可说明动作发生的时间, 相当于一个表示时间的状语从句.   This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production.   间或也可表示一个假设的情况, 相当于一个条件从句.   Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.   偶尔也可用来代替一个“让步”状语从句.   Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years. 相关链接: 大学英语四级语法精要:现在分词及动名词1 大学英语四级语法精要:时态,语态,短语动词
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