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高考英语名师手记-冠词

本站原创 | 2015-04-24
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  一、考纲要求
  
  结合名词的分类情况,理解冠词表泛指、特指、类指、专指之间的区别;掌握有关冠词的习语及固定句型。
  
  二、命题导向
  
  冠词规则的灵活运用是高考命题的一个热点,几乎每年高考题的单项选择或完形填空都有涉及冠词的题目,不定冠词和定冠词的一些特殊用法,习惯用法及不用冠词的情况是高考重点考查的知识点。
  
  三、复习要点
  
  1.不定冠词的基本用法:
  
  (1)表示数量“一”,相当于“one”。I’ll return in a day or two。
  
  (2)表示“同一”,相当于“the same”。The children are of an age。
  
  (3)表示泛指或类指,指人或事物的某一个、某一类。如:
  
  He wants to he a doctor./ A horse is a useful animal。
  
  (4)用于某一些表示重量、长度、时间等单位前,表示“每一”。如:
  
  We have meals three times a day。(我们一天吃三餐。)
  
  (5)用于专有名词前表示类似的一个或某一个,相当于“a certain”。如:
  
  A Mr. Smith is asking to see you. (一位李先生要见你。)
  
  (6)与某些物质名词或抽象名词连用,表示“一种、一类、一份、一场、一阵……”如: a surprise一件令人惊讶的事;a success一个(件)成功的人(事);a green tea一种绿茶;a heavy rain一场(阵)大雨
  
  (7)用在某些固定词组中。如:
  
  ①have a swim/walk/talk/dance/look =swim/walk/talk/dance/look
  
  ②have a cold, have a good time, keep a diary, in a hurry, once in a while, at a loss, for a while, once upon a time, all of a sudden, tell a lie, do sb. a favour, at a distance, have a good knowledge of, as a matter of fact
  
  2.定冠词的基本用法:
  
  (1)表示上文提到过的人或事物。如:I have bought a book. The book is very useful。
  
  (2)用于说话人与听话人心中都有数的人或事物。如:Close the window, please。
  
  (3)用于表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the sun, the moon, the earth, the world等。
  
  (4)用于表示方位的名词之前。如:in the east, on the right。
  
  (5)用于序数词或形容词的最高级之前。如:the first, the tallest。
  
  (6)用于形容词之前,使其名词化,表示一类人。如:the sick, the wounded。
  
  (7)用于由普通名词构成的专有名词之前。如:the United States, the United Nation。
  
  (8) 用于江河、海洋、海峡、山脉、群岛、建筑物等的名词之前。如:the Changjiang River, the East Lake。
  
  (9)用于复数姓氏之前,表示“夫妇”或“全家”。如:The Smiths。
  
  (10)用于作为课程或演奏等的西洋乐器名词前。如:play the piano; play the violin。
  
  (11)用于表示单位的名词前。如:by the day(month)按日(月),by the yard(foot)按码(英尺)
  
  (12)用于年代、朝代、时代名词前。如:in the 1970s, the Tang Dynasty。
  
  (13) 用于某些固定词组中。如:in the morning(afternoon, evening), on the other hand , at the same time。
  
  3.不用冠词的情况:
  
  (1)不含普通名词的专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词、人名、地名等名词前,一般不加冠词。如:China , America, Smith。
  
  (2)可数名词前有物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等限制时,不加冠词。如:
  
  I like this picture; Einstein’s theory proved to be correct。
  
  (3)季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐名称前一般不加冠词。如:
  
  March, May Day, National Day, Children’s Day, Women’s Day,have supper
  
  (4)呼语前不用冠词。如:What shall I do next, Mother?
  
  (5)表示独一无二的头衔职务、职务名词作表语、同位语或补足语时,一般不加冠词。如:We elected him president of our university。
  
  (6)学科名称、球类、棋类名称前不加冠词。如:
  
  Do you study physics?
  
  He likes playing football/chess。
  
  (7)复数名词表示泛指一类人或事物时前不用冠词。如:
  
  They are peasants/ workers。
  
  (8)在与by连用的交通工具名称前不加冠词。如:
  
  by car, by bus, by bike, by train, by air/ water/ land
  
  (9)连系动词turn后的表语单数可数名词前不用冠词。如:
  
  The young worker has turned writer。
  
  (10)no与such连用时应放在such之前,such后面的名词前不用冠词。如:
  
  No such thing has ever happened in this village。
  
  (11)as, though引导的倒装的让步状语从句中的表语(单数可数名词名词)置于句首时不用冠词。如:child as he is, he knows a lot。
  
  (12)某些固定词组中不用冠词。如:husband and wife, brother and sister, body and soul, day and night, knife and fork, young and old, arm in arm, hand in hand, side by side, go to school, leave school, in prison, to(at, from, at work, on foot, from door to door, from morning till night, year after year, step by step
  
  四、注意事项
  
  1. 在有些词组中,有无冠词含义不同。
  
  go to school 去上学 in hospital 住院(因病)
  
  go to the school 去学校 in the hospital在医院(工作、参观等)
  
  in front of在前面,指某物体之外 in charge负责,主管
  
  in the front of在前部,指某物之内 in the charge由……负责
  
  out of question没问题
  
  out of the question不可能
  
  2.冠词的活用情况
  
  (1)表示世界上独一无二的事物的名词前一般加定冠词the;但如果名词前有修饰语,来表示“怎样的”时也可用不定冠词。如:
  
  the world, a peaceful world; the moon, a bright moon。
  
  (2)表示一日三餐的名词前一般不用冠词,但前面如果有定于修饰,也可用不定冠词。如:I had a wonderful supper yesterday。
  
  (3)表示乐器的名词前一般用定冠词,但如果该名词作为普通名词,也可用不定冠词。如:This is a piano and it is the king of musical instruments。
  
  (4)形容词最高级前、序数词前也可用不定冠词。
  
  ①形容词最高级前加不定冠词表示“十分、非常”之意,相当于very。如:
  
  It is a most useful book。
  
  ②序数词second、third等前加不定冠词表示“又一,再一”之意,相当于another。如:Can you give me a second chance, please?
  
  (5)表示语言的前一般不用冠词,但后面如果出现language一词,前面需加定冠词the。如:English=the English language
  
  (6)牢记高考中常见的纯不可数名词。它们是information, fun, weather, progress, advice,news,space,word(=news),furniture,equipment等,均不可与不定冠词连用。
  
  3.冠词的类指用法
  
  (1)定冠词 + 单数可数名词,指的是这个类别,这个类别是可以区别于另一个类别的。如:The compass was invented in China, but the computer was not。
  
  (2)不定冠词 + 单数可数名词,侧重于指类别中任何一个的特点。如:
  
  A tiger is a type of very large fierce wild cat that has yellow fur with black bands across。
  
  注意:man, woman表示泛指时,不用冠词,且常用单数。如:
  
  Man tries to be the protector of woman。
  
  (3)可数名词复数或不可数名词,侧重于指类别中的许多个体。如:
  
  Children usually start walking at around one year old。
  
  4.冠词的位置问题
  
  (1)不定冠词 + 副词 + 形容词 + 名词。如:
  
  This is a very interesting story。
  
  (2)such、what、both、all、quite、rather +不定冠词+形容词+名词。如:
  
  I’ve never seen such a film!
  
  Half a pound of pork, please!
  
  What a good idea it is!
  
  (3)as、so、too、how、however、enough+形容词+不定冠词+名词。如:
  
  I can’t finish the task in so short a time。
  
  He is brave enough a hunter to kill the bear。
  
  (4)half、twice、three times、all、both、double + the + 名词。如:
  
  He paid twice the price for it。
  
  Their house is three times the size of yours。
  
  五、精典名题导解
  
  1. (2008湖南) Have you heard ______ news?The piece of _______ petrol is going up again!
  
  A. the, the B. 不填,the C. the, 不填 D. 不填,不填
  
  考点解析:第一空格为特指,the news即指汽油价格又上涨这件事。第二空格petrol为抽象名词,故其前不用冠词。故选C。
  
  2. (2008江苏)We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of driving across ______ continent。
  
  A. the; the B。不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填
  
  考点解析:第一空by sea指乘船,故其前不用冠词。第二空根据句意可知,此处continent为特指,指驱车穿过的那个大陆,故用定冠词the。故选B。
  
  3. (2008江西卷)—I am so sorry to have come late for the meeting。
  
  —It is not your fault. With _ _ rush-hour traffic and _ _ heavy rain, it is no wonder you were late。
  
  A. a; a B. the; the C. /; / D. /; a
  
  考点解析:两空中traffic和rain均为抽象名词,故不定冠词先可排除。再根据题意可知,均为特指,指当时的交通高峰拥堵和下大雨使他开会迟到,故均用定冠词the。故答案为B。
  
  4. (2008山东) Students should be encouraged to use ________ Internet as________ resource。
  
  A. /; a   B. 不填; the   C. the; the   D. the; a
  
  考点解析:Internet 为专有名词,其前常用the。句意为:应鼓励学生使用因特网作为一种资源。resource 前应用a,表示“一种资源”,为泛指。故答案为D。
  
  5. (2008四川) In the United States, there is always ____ flow of people to areas of ______ country where more jobs can be found。
  
  A. a; the B. the; a C. the; the D. a; a
  
  考点解析:第一空为泛指,a flow of people表示“人流”。第二空由于country 后面有定语从句where more jobs can be found。修饰限定,同时根据意思应为特指,故用定冠词the。故答案为A。
  
  6. (北京市朝阳区2009年高三2月统一考试) _______ person like him won’t be simply satisfied with _________ progress that has been made。
  
  A. The; a B. The; / C. A; / D. A; the
  
  考点解析:第一空表示“像他这样的一个人”,应为泛指,故用不定冠词a。第二空progress后面有定语从句that has been made。修饰限定,应为特指,故用定冠词the。故答案为D。
  
  7. (2009年北京市宣武区高三第一次质量检测)—Could you tell me ________ way to Taylor Clinic?
  
  —Sorry, but I’m afraid there is not _________ Taylor Clinic nearby。
  
  A. a; a B. a; the C. the; the D. the; a
  
  考点解析:第一空特指去Taylor Clinic的路,故应用定冠词the。第二空根据句意 “恐怕这附近没有Taylor Clinic这个地方”可知应为泛指,故用不定冠词a。故答案为D。
  
  8. (上海市2009年高三年级十四校联考)—I hear that the Australian bushfire that happened in the north of Melbourne killed at least 181 people and destroyed many buildings。
  
  —Yes. _______ news came as _________ shock to me。
  
  A. the; the B. the; a C. a; the D. a; a
  
  考点解析:根据句意可知,第一空应为特指,此处news指上文提到的事件即the Australian bushfire…,故用定冠词the。而第二空shock表示一件令人震惊的事,故为泛指,应用不定冠词a。故答案为B。
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